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Section A File Basics CHAPTER 4 File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup PARSONS/OJA Page 168 Chapter 4 File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup Chapter PREVIEW Create valid names for files and folders Use file management features

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file management virus protection and backup

Section A

File Basics

CHAPTER

4

File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup

PARSONS/OJA

Page 168

file management virus protection and backup2

Chapter

4

File Management, Virus Protection, and Backup

Chapter PREVIEW

  • Create valid names for files and folders
  • Use file management features
  • Describe how a computer physically stores files
  • Explain viruses, boot sector viruses, macro viruses, Trojan horses, worms, and Denial of Service attacks
  • Describe how antivirus software is used
  • Understand backup and restore plans
  • Compare backup devices

Page 169

file basics

Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

Filenames, Extensions, and Formats: What are the rules for naming files?

  • Every file has a name, and might also have a filename extension
  • You must provide a valid filename that adheres to rules or file-naming conventions

Page 170

file basics4

Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

What are the rules for naming a file?

Page 170

file basics5

Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

Are filename extensions important?

  • Filename extension further describes the file contents
  • Separated by the filename with a dot
      • Readme.txt, Newsletter.doc
    • Related to the file format, the arrangement of data in a file, and the coding scheme used to represent the data
  • Most software programs have a native file format that is used to store files
  • They display any files that have the filename extension for its native file format

Page 171

file basics6

Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

Are filename extensions important?

Click to start

Page 171

file basics7

Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

File Locations, Folders, and Paths: How do I designate a file’s location?

  • You first specify where file will be stored
    • A: for floppy disk drive
    • C: for hard drive
    • D through Z for additional storage
  • CD, Zip and DVD drive letters are not standardized

Page 172

file basics8

Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

What’s the purpose of folders?

  • An operating system maintains a list of files called a directory for each disk, CD-ROM or DVD
  • Folders - smaller lists within directories
  • A folder is separated from a drive letter and a filename by a backslash (\)

Page 172

file basics9

Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

What’s the purpose of folders?

  • A file specification (path) is the drive letter, folder, filename, and extension that identifies a file

C:\Music\Reggae\Marley One Love.mp3

drive letter

extension

filename

Primary Folder

Secondary Folder

Page 172

file basics10

Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

File Sizes and Dates. Sorting…

Page 173

file basics11

Section A

Chapter

4

File Basics

Is the file date important?

  • Your computer keeps track of the date that a file was created or last modified
  • The file date is useful if you have created several versions of a file and want to make sure that you know which version is the most recent

Page 173

file management

Section B

Chapter

4

File Management

What’s the difference between the Save option and the Save As option?

Renaming file…Saving with new name

Page 175

file management13

Section B

Chapter

4

File Management

What other options does the Save As dialog box provide?

  • You can use it to rename a file, delete a file, or create a folder

Click to start

Page 175

file management14

Section B

Chapter

4

File Management

File Management Utilities: How does the operating system help me manage files?

  • File manager utility software
    • provided by your computer operating system
    • helps you locate, rename, move, copy and delete files

Page 176

file management15

Section B

Chapter

4

File Management

Windows Explorer: How do I use a file management utility?

  • Windows Explorer is an example of a file management utility

Click to start

Page 178

file management16

Section B

Chapter

4

File Management

Is data stored in specific places on a disk?

Page 180

file management17

Section B

Chapter

4

File Management

How does a disk get formatted? Malfunctioning floppy disks…

  • Formatting utilities are supplied by operating system or by companies that manufacture the drives

Page 180-81

file management18

Section B

Chapter

4

File Management

How does the operating system keep track of a file’s location?

Page 182

file management19

Section B

Chapter

4

File Management

What happens when a file is deleted?

  • The OS simply changes the status of the file’s clusters to “empty” and removes the filename from the FAT. It doesn’t remove the data, just the references to it
  • Special file shredder software can be used to overwrite “empty” sectors with random 1s and 0s
    • Helpful if you want to make sure that your personal data no longer remains on the hard disk
    • Individual bought 158 used hard drives on EBAY just to obtain personal info on them
      • Tax returns, 3,700 credit card numbers, bank account numbers, legal and medical records
      • Only 12 were properly purged
    • What happens when you put your computer in the trash???
      • Europe requires recycling
        • 63 million PCs placed in U.S. landfills in 2003

Page 182

file management20

Section B

Chapter

4

File Management

How does the Recycle Bin affect file deletions?

  • Deleted files are moved to the Recycle Bin folder
  • Helps to protect against accidental erasures
  • Can you retrieve files from the Recycle Bin???

Page 183

file management21

Section B

Chapter

4

File Management

How does a disk become fragmented?

  • As computer files are added/deleted, parts of files tend to become scattered all over the disk
  • These fragmented files are stored in noncontiguous clusters
    • Slows drive performance
  • Defragmentation utility – rearranges the files on a disk so that they are stored in contiguous clusters.

Page 183

file management22

Section B

Chapter

4

File Management

How does a disk become fragmented?

Page 183

computer viruses

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

Viruses, Trojan Horses, and Worms: What’s the technical definition of a virus?

  • A computer virus is a program that attaches itself to a file, reproduces itself, and spreads to other files
  • A virus can perform a trigger event:
    • corrupt and/or destroy data
    • display an irritating message
  • Key characteristic is their ability to “lurk” in a computer for days or months quietly replicating themselves

Page 185

computer viruses24

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

What’s the technical definition of a virus?

  • File virus - a virus that attaches itself to an application program
    • Chernobyl - designed to lurk in computer until April 26
  • A boot sector virus infects the system files that your computer uses every time you turn it on.
    • Computer lab….
  • A macro virus infects a set of instructions called a “macro”.
    • Macro - a miniature program that usually contains legitimate instructions to automate document and worksheet production
    • File attachments

Page 186

computer viruses25

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

How is a Trojan horse different from a virus?

  • A modern day Trojan horse is a computer program that appears to perform one function while actually doing something else
    • Not a virus, but may carry a virus
    • Does not replicate itself
  • Another type of Trojan horse looks like a log-in screen
  • PictureNote.Trojan – arrives as e-mail named picture.exe and then tries to steal login and e-mail passwords

Page 186

computer viruses26

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

What’s a worm?

  • A software worm is a program designed to enter a computer system through security holes
    • usually through a network
    • does not need to be attached to a document to reproduce
  • 8/03: Blaster worm: attacks Air Canada’s reservation system
  • Denial of Service attacks

Page 186-187

computer viruses27

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

How are viruses spread?

Page 187

computer viruses28

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

How are viruses spread?

  • Viruses are spread through e-mails as well
    • 8/03: SoBig Virus
      • Placed virus on pc which sent e-mail to everyone in your address book with virus attached
      • Shut down CSX rail system
  • Macro viruses are usually found in MS Word and MS Excel files (.doc and .xls)
  • To keep safe, you can disable macros on files you do not trust

Page 187-188

computer viruses29

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

What are the symptoms of a virus?

  • Your computer displays a vulgar, embarrassing or annoying message
  • Your computer develops unusual visual or sound effects
  • You have difficulty saving files: files mysteriously disappear
  • Your computer reboots suddenly
  • Your computer works very slowly
  • Your executable files unaccountably increase in size
  • Your computer starts sending out lots of e-mail messages on its own

Page 188

computer viruses30

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

Too much Microsoft….

  • 95% of operating system software designed by Microsoft
  • If hackers can find a flaw in this software they can utilize this to impact many computers, not just a few….
  • If we used several different operating systems creating viruses would not be so much fun…
  • Recently a panel of “experts” called Microsoft’s dominance of the software market a national security concern

Page 188

computer viruses31

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

Antivirus Software: What’s antivirus software?

  • Antivirus software is a set of utility programs that looks for and eradicates a wide spectrum of problems such as viruses, Trojan horses, and worms

Page 189

computer viruses32

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

How does antivirus software work?

  • Hackers have created viruses that can insert themselves into unused portions of a program.
  • To counterattack the work of hackers, antivirus software designers created software with a checksum - a number calculated by combining binary values of all bytes in a file
    • compares checksum each time you run a program

Page 189

computer viruses33

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

How does antivirus software work?

  • Antivirus software also checks for a virus signature – a unique series of bytes used to identify a known virus

Page 189

computer viruses34

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

When should I use antivirus software?

  • “All the time”
    • Does slow machine performance
  • Most antivirus software allows you to specify what to check and when to check it
  • Norton Antivirus
  • McAfee Antivirus

Page 189

computer viruses35

Section C

Chapter

4

Computer Viruses

How often should I get an update?

  • New viruses and variations of old viruses are unleashed just about everyday
  • Check website of antivirus software publisher for periodic updates
  • Software can be set to update itself automatically. This is what you want…
  • Must also keep your operating system up to date with patches prepared by Microsoft
  • And if you have a home network, you need a firewall

Page 190

data backup

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

Backup and Restore Procedures: How do I make a backup?

  • Data backup, a copy of a file or the contents of a disk drive, provide the best all-round security for your data
  • A backup is usually stored on a different storage medium from the original files
  • The exact steps that you follow depend on your backup equipment, your backup software, and your personal backup plan
  • Data rewind

Page 193

data backup37

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

How do I restore data?

  • You restore data from a backup to the original storage medium or its replacement

Page 194

data backup38

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

What’s the best backup plan?

Page 194

data backup39

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

Do I have to back up every file?

  • Not necessarily, you could just back up most important files such as your data files
  • Best is to select a strategy
    • Store data files in specific location. Offsite!
    • Also backup:
      • Internet connection information
      • E-mail folders
      • E-mail address book
      • Favorite URLs
      • Downloads

Page 194-195

data backup40

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

How often should I back up my data?

  • Backup your data depending upon how much data you can afford to use
  • Under normal use, once-a-week should be good enough

Page 196

data backup41

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

How many sets of backups do I need?

  • One backup is good, but in case your backup gets corrupted, you should maintain a rotating set of backups

Page 196

data backup42

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

Will all of my backups contain the same files?

  • Full backup - copy of all files on a disk; safe but can take a long time
    • computer cannot be used during backup
    • backup device requires equal capacity
  • Differential backup - copy of all files that have changed since the last full backup
    • takes less time but more complex
    • requires one full backup and then you will make differential backups at regular intervals

Page 196

data backup43

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

Will all of my backups contain the same files?

  • Incremental backup - copy of all files that have changed since the last backup
    • not necessarily since the last full backup, but since any previous backup
    • takes the least time but is most complex to restore
    • requires good recordkeeping
      • label correctly

Page 196

data backup44

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

How can I make sure that my backups will work?

  • Test your backups periodically

Page 197

data backup45

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

Do I need a boot disk?

  • A boot disk is a floppy disk or CD that contains the OS files needed to boot your computer without using hard drive
  • Most manufacturers include a recovery CD for restoring your system to original setup
  • Windows Startup Disk – it loads OS, and the CD-ROM drivers necessary for your computer to access files on the CD-ROM
  • Antivirus software creates rescue disk with boot info and antivirus software

Page 197-98

data backup46

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

Can I store my backups on the Internet?

  • Several web sites offer fee-based backup storage space
  • When needed, you simply download backup files from the Web onto your hard disk
    • Definitely offsite storage
    • But what if they go out of business???

Page 198

data backup47

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

Do floppy disks and Zip disks play any role in backups?

  • Floppy disks are inexpensive, contain 1.44 MB space, and are good for several documents
  • Zip disk’s 100 MB and 250 MB capacity is sufficient for documents and digital graphics

Page 198-199

data backup48

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

What about writable CDs and DVDs?

  • Writable optical technologies provide good storage capacity and blank disks are fairly inexpensive

Page 199

data backup49

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

How about a second hard disk drive?

  • Good backup option
  • Disadvantage: susceptible to same dangers of first drive
    • Fire, theft, etc.

Page 199

data backup50

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

How do I choose a backup device? What about flash drives??? 128 MB

Page 199

data backup51

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

Backup Software: Do I need special software to make a backup?

  • Software depends on your backup plan
    • Can use your file management utility to do simple file copying; backup software are available

Page 200

data backup52

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

What’s the easiest way to make a copy of a floppy disk?

  • Many personal computer OSs provide a Copy Disk Utility
  • Makes copies of floppy disks only

Page 200

data backup53

Section D

Chapter

4

Data Backup

What’s the easiest way to make a copy of a floppy disk?

Page 200