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EDU3130 Simple Graphic Manipulations I Rosanna Chan Multimedia Elements Multimedia elements include: Digital Video Digital Audio Text abvdefghij Klmnopqrst uvwxyz Multimedia Graphics Animation Multimedia Elements Graphics

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multimedia elements
Multimedia Elements
  • Multimedia elements include:

Digital

Video

Digital

Audio

Text

abvdefghij

Klmnopqrst

uvwxyz

Multimedia

Graphics

Animation

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multimedia elements graphics
Multimedia ElementsGraphics
  • Graphics is a digital representation of non-text information such as a drawing, chart, or photograph.
  • It is also called a digital picture or image, and contains no movement or animation
  • 3 fundamental characteristics of color
    • Hue (色調)
      • Related to the wavelength of light
    • Lightness (亮度)
      • Related to the amplitude of light
    • Saturation (彩度)
      • Related to the purity of light

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Pixel

  • A pixel is the smallest unit of programmable color on a computer display or in a computer image
  • Every computer graphic is made up of a grid of pixels
  • There are two types of graphics
    • Bitmap graphics
    • Vector graphics

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Bitmap Graphics

  • Bitmap is a representation of a graphics image
  • Consists of rows and columns of dots
  • The value of each dot (whether it is filled in or not) is stored in one or more bits of data
  • Simple monochrome images use one bit to represent each dot

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Bitmap Graphics

  • The more bits used to represent a dot, the more colors and shades of gray that can be represented:

1-bit image,

2 color: black or white

8-bit image, 256 colors (28=256)

24-bit image, 16777216 colors (true color)

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Resolution

  • Determines how sharply the image is represented
  • Expressed in dot per inch (dpi), or simply by the number of rows and columns, such as 640 by 480
  • Bitmap graphics suffer distortion in image quality when being scaled up, this does not happen in case of vector graphics

Vector graphic

Bitmap graphic

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Vector Graphics

  • Vector graphics are based on mathematical formulas that represent curves and lines
  • Very smooth looking and can easily be resized without loss of image quality

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Formats

  • A format is a standard specifying how the data is arranged
  • For bitmap graphics
    • BMP
    • GIF
    • JPEG
  • For vector graphics
    • EPS
    • WMF

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Formats

  • BMP (.bmp)
    • Microsoft's native graphic file format
  • GIF (Graphic Image Format) (.gif)
    • Only supports 256 colors; therefore the file sizes can be kept small. GIF works best when the number of colors within an image is small
  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) (.jpg)
    • Supports millions and allows for graphic compression. Most people use JPEG for Web graphics that contain a multitude of colors and gradations - like photographic images
  • EPS (Encapsulated Postscript) (.eps)
    • For image attached within a PostScript language document
  • WMF (Windows Metafile Format) (.wmf)
    • For exchanging graphics between Microsoft applications such as clipart in Microsoft Office

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

Vector Graphics

  • An example of vector graphic is the clipart in MS PowerPoint
  • When you enlarge a clipart image, it will not distort

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

GIF versus JPEG

  • When the number of color of an image is large, JPEG performs better

JPEG format, 6k bytes

GIF format, 13.5k bytes

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Multimedia ElementsGraphics

GIF versus JPEG

  • When the number of color of an image is small, GIF performs better

JPEG, 5.4 bytes

GIF, 1.5k bytes

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multimedia elements computer based animation
Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation
  • Literally, “To animate something” means “to bring it to life”
  • An animation covers all changes that have a visual effect (e.g. position, color)
  • Displaying a series of still graphics creates an animation, which is cause by the illusion of motion

Techniques Used

  • Input Process
    • Drawings must be digitized (e.g. scanned) to create key frames, where the entities being animated are at extreme or characteristic positions.
    • The drawing may need to be carefully post-processed (e.g. filtering) in order to clean up any glitches arises from the input process

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Techniques Used

  • In-between Process
    • Intermediate frames are insert between key frames
    • Interpolation methods is used
      • The computer obtain only the beginning and end positions, and fill-in the intermediate positions
    • Color changes is achieved by the Color-Look-Up Table (CLUT) of the graphic memory

Frames Interpolation

CLUT

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Methods of Creating Animation

  • Digital animation is based on the flipbook approach – a sequence of images is compressed and then played back to convey a sense of motion
  • The playback rate is the number of images displayed per second when the animation is being viewed
    • To effectively create the illusion of motion, the playback rate of animation must be at least 24 frames per second
  • An image is said to Flicker when the illusion of motion fails and the animation appears as a rapid sequence of still images instead of a fluid object in motion

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Frame-Based Animation

  • Also called cell animation
  • Key frames that describe key events in the timeline of the animation are created on cells or frames
  • Tweening (the process of filling in the frames between the key frames) is used to make the animation appear smooth
  • Morphing is a special technique that uses frames to create the illusion of one object changing into another (also called shape-tweening)

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Path-Based Animation

  • Also called vector animation
  • Creates animated objects by following an object’s transition over a line or vector
  • The artist creates only one drawing and a path, then the computer manipulates this object by drawing the frames as the object travels over the path
  • Computational animation allows an object to be moved across a screen by varying its x and y coordinates

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Script-Based Animation

  • Script-based animation is created using programming languages
  • LINGO
    • The programming language included in Macromedia Director
    • Is an object-oriented scripting language that extends Director’s build-in capability
  • JAVA
    • Java applets can be used to create advanced animated objects
    • Java enable computational animation: it can react to external input
    • Examples: http://fractal.leet.net.au/page.php?page=funkyapplets

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Multimedia ElementsComputer-based Animation

Animated GIFs

  • Animated GIFs are a special kind of GIF file known as GIF89a
  • An animated GIF file stores multiple images as separate blocks within a single GIF file
  • When being viewed on the Web, the multiple images are streamed (played back one at a time)
  • Streaming: the viewer does not have to wait for the entire GIF to be downloaded before it begins running on a Web page

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