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Creativity and Leadership: . How Much Are They the Same? How Much Are They Different?. Why is this question important?. The significance of creativity and leadership in both the workplace and the world at large, and thus the need

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Creativity and Leadership:

How Much Are They the Same?

How Much Are They Different?


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Why is this question important?

  • The significance of creativity and leadership in both the workplace and the world at large, and thus the need

    • to understand how creativity and leadership actually operate in domains, organizations, and the general society

    • to enhance, whenever possible and necessary, the amount of creativity and leadership manifested in a domain, organization or society


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What are creativity and leadership?

  • What is leadership?

    • The traditional answer: Charisma, magnetism, dynamism, etc., etc.

    • The scientific answer: Impact

    • That is, that member of a group whose influence on group performance appreciably exceeds that of the average group member

    • Group performance = productivity and/or decision-making



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What are creativity and leadership?

  • What is creativity?

    • Two requirements


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What are creativity and leadership?

  • What is creativity?

    • Two requirements

      • To be creative is to be original


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What are creativity and leadership?

  • What is creativity?

    • Two requirements

      • To be creative is to be original

      • To be creative is to be useful


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What are creativity and leadership?

  • What is creativity?

    • Two requirements

    • Three manifestations


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What are creativity and leadership?

  • What is creativity?

    • Two requirements

    • Three manifestations

      • The product


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What are creativity and leadership?

  • What is creativity?

    • Two requirements

    • Three manifestations

      • The product

      • The process


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What are creativity and leadership?

  • What is creativity?

    • Two requirements

    • Three manifestations

      • The product

      • The process

      • The person


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How might these definitions be integrated?

  • Impact through products - innovative ideas, inventions, solutions, policies, programs, strategies, tactics, reforms, initiatives, laws, regulations, etc.

  • Examples: Creativity and leadership in

    • Small problem-solving groups (R & D units, research laboratories)

    • Professional domains, economic systems, and political institutions


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How can creativity and leadership be compared?

  • Differential psychology:

    • How do people differ?

  • Developmental psychology:

    • How do people develop?

  • Social psychology:

    • How are people affected by the social context?


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Differential psychology

  • Behavior: How much do people vary?

  • Cognition: How does the person think?

  • Personality: What is the person like?


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Behavior

  • Distribution of influential products

  • Normal or “bell-shaped” curve?

  • No  The Elitism of Impact

    • Leadership

      • Pareto’s Law: 20%  80%

    • Creativity

      • Lokta’s Law: f(n) = c/n2

      • Price’s Law: k1/2 50%


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Cognition

  • IQ and impact


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Cognition

  • IQ and impact: Positive correlation (r .25)


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Cognition

  • IQ and impact: But ...


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Cognition

  • IQ and impact

    • Creativity


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Cognition

  • IQ and impact

    • Creativity: The 120 Threshold


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Cognition

  • IQ and impact

    • Creativity

    • Leadership


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Cognition

  • IQ and impact

    • Creativity

    • Leadership: The 120 Optimum


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Cognition

  • Cognitive complexity: IC measures

    • Leadership

      • Performance (decision-making)

      • Ideology (ideologues vs. moderates)

    • Creativity

      • Performance (productivity)

      • Orientation (natural vs. human sciences)



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Cognition

  • Imagination


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

      • Conceptual thinking (“secondary process”)


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

      • Conceptual thinking (“secondary process”)

      • Primordial thinking (“primary process”)


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

      • Conceptual thinking (“secondary process”)

      • Primordial thinking (“primary process”)

    • Measurement


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

      • Conceptual thinking (“secondary process”)

      • Primordial thinking (“primary process”)

    • Measurement: Regressive Imagery Dictionary


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

      • Conceptual thinking (“secondary process”)

      • Primordial thinking (“primary process”)

    • Measurement: Regressive Imagery Dictionary

      • Drives (drink, kiss, smell, lick, sex, etc.)


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

      • Conceptual thinking (“secondary process”)

      • Primordial thinking (“primary process”)

    • Measurement: Regressive Imagery Dictionary

      • Drives (drink, kiss, smell, lick, sex, etc.)

      • Sensations (touch, taste, hear, see, etc.)


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

      • Conceptual thinking (“secondary process”)

      • Primordial thinking (“primary process”)

    • Measurement: Regressive Imagery Dictionary

      • Drives (drink, kiss, smell, lick, sex, etc.)

      • Sensations (touch, taste, hear, see, etc.)

      • Experiences (dream, smell, fly, fall, wake, etc.)


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

    • Measurement

    • Consequences


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

    • Measurement

    • Consequences

      • Creativity


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

    • Measurement

    • Consequences

      • Creativity

        • Aesthetics


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

    • Measurement

    • Consequences

      • Creativity

        • Aesthetics

      • Leadership


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

    • Measurement

    • Consequences

      • Creativity

        • Aesthetics

      • Leadership

        • Charisma


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Cognition

  • Imagination

    • Distinction

    • Measurement

    • Consequences

    • Correlation: Charisma and Creativity


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Cognition

  • Correlation: Charisma and Creativity

    • Former: “is charismatic,” “finds dealing with the press challenging and enjoyable,” “consciously refines his own public image,” “has flair for the dramatic,” “enjoys the ceremonial aspects of the office,” “conveys clear-cut, highly visible personality,” “skilled and self-confident negotiator,” “uses rhetoric effectively, “dynamo of energy and determination,” “characterized by others as a world figure,” “keeps in contact with the American public and its moods”, “has ability to maintain popularity,” “exhibits artistry in manipulation,” “views the presidency as a vehicle for self-expression,” but “rarely shy, awkward in public.”


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Cognition

  • Correlation: Charisma and Creativity

    • Latter: “initiates new legislation and programs,” “is innovative in his role as an executive,” but rarely “is a middle-of-the-roader.”


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Cognition

  • Correlation: Creativity and Charisma

    • r = .78


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Personality

  • Motivation

  • Psychopathology


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Personality

  • Motivation


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Personality

  • Motivation

    • The triad


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Personality

  • Motivation

    • The triad:

      • Power - Concern with impact, control or influence on others; with arousing strong emotions in others; with prestige.


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Personality

  • Motivation

    • The triad:

      • Power

      • Achievement - Concern with excellence, success in competition, or unique unprecedented accomplishment.


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Personality

  • Motivation

    • The triad:

      • Power

      • Achievement

      • Affiliation - Concern with friendship, love, or companionate activity; nurturance.


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Personality

  • Motivation

    • The triad

    • The consequences


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Personality

  • Motivation

    • The triad

    • The consequences:

      • Leadership


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Personality

  • Motivation

    • The triad

    • The consequences:

      • Leadership

      • Creativity


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Personality

  • Psychopathology

    • Creativity versus leadership

    • Artistic versus scientific creativity

    • Formal versus expressive artistic creativity

    • Status quo versus revolutionary leadership


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Developmental psychology

  • Genetic endowment

  • Birth order

  • Childhood trauma

  • Formal education

  • Career development


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Developmental psychology

  • Genetic endowment

    • Family pedigrees

    • Psychopathological families


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Developmental psychology

  • Birth order

    • Artistic versus scientific creators

    • Revolutionary versus normal scientists

    • Revolutionary versus status quo politicians


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Developmental psychology

  • Childhood trauma

    • Creators versus leaders

    • Artistic versus scientific creators

    • Revolutionary versus normal scientists

    • Revolutionary versus status quo leaders


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Developmental psychology

  • Formal education

    • Scholastic success

      • Creativity

      • Leadership

    • Level of training

      • Creativity

      • Leadership


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Developmental psychology

  • Career development

    • Becoming an expert

      • Leadership

      • Creativity

    • Age and achievement

      • The curve


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Developmental psychology

  • Career development

    • Becoming an expert

      • Leadership

      • Creativity

    • Age and achievement

      • The curve

      • The contrasts


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Developmental psychology

  • Career development

    • Becoming an expert

      • Leadership

      • Creativity

    • Age and achievement

      • The curve

      • The contrasts

        • Creativity


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Developmental psychology

  • Career development

    • Becoming an expert

      • Leadership

      • Creativity

    • Age and achievement

      • The curve

      • The contrasts

        • Creativity

        • Leadership


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Social psychology

  • Interpersonal Relationships

  • Group dynamics

    • Group decision making

      • Groupthink phenomenon

    • Group problem solving

      • Creative research units

  • Situational influences

    • Creativity

    • Leadership


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Conclusion: Creativity and Leadership

  • Conceptual commonality: Impact

  • Often dependent on the same underlying psychological factors

  • Yet also diverge in subtle ways

  • Hence, the rarity of an often much needed phenomenon:

  • Creative leadership