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CLL lecture: L2 processing. November 2004 Florencia Franceschina. input. working memory. output. long-term memory. Memory. Gathercole and Baddeley (1994). declarative memory. production memory. working memory. outside world. Memory. J.R. Anderson (1983, 1995).

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cll lecture l2 processing

CLL lecture: L2 processing

November 2004

Florencia Franceschina



working memory


long-term memory


Gathercole and Baddeley (1994)


declarative memory

production memory

working memory

outside world


J.R. Anderson (1983, 1995)

attention vs automaticity
Attention vs automaticity

There is a tension between

  • Attention to rule and form
  • Memory
  • Attention
  • Awareness
  • Control
noticing schmidt 1990
Noticing(Schmidt, 1990)
  • Factors influencing noticing:
    • Frequency
    • Perceptual salience
    • Instruction
    • Processing ability
    • Readiness
    • Task demands
stages of proceduralization raupach 1984 1987
Stages of proceduralization(Raupach, 1984, 1987)

1) Cognitive stage

2) Associative stage

3) Autonomous stage

measures of proceduralization grosjean and deschamps 1972
Measures of proceduralization(Grosjean and Deschamps, 1972)
  • Speaking rate
  • Articulation rate
  • Phonation/time ratio
  • MLU
representation models
Representation models
  • Rule-based (Reber, 1989)
  • Exemplar-based (MacWhinney, 1999)
  • Dual-mode (Marcus et al., 1992)
input processing models of sla
Input processing models of SLA
  • Comprehension-based models
    • Krashen (1985)
  • Processing-based models
    • Van Patten (1996)
    • Schmidt (1990)
input processing principles van patten 1996
Input Processing Principles (Van Patten, 1996)

Principle 1: learners process input for meaning before they process it for form

Principle 2: For learners to process form that is not meaningful, they must be able to process informational or communicational content at no or little cost to attentional resources

Principle 3: Learners possess default input processing strategies

production models
Production models
  • Levelt (1989, 1999)
speech errors
Speech errors

a. Exchanges*You have hissed all my mystery lecturesYou have missed all my history lectures

b. Anticipations*I's a meal mysteryIt's a real mystery

c. Perseverations*give the goygive the boy

d. Substitutions, additions, omissions*his rettershis letters

*prich playerrich player

lexical decision task
Lexical decision task

Source: Gough and Cosky (1977: 278), cited in Radford et al. (1999: 235)


DeBot, K. and J. Kroll 2002: Psycholinguistics. In N. Schmitt (ed.): An introduction to applied linguistics. London: Arnold. Pp. 133-149.


Anderson, J R. 1983. The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Anderson, J R. 1995. Learning and memory: an integrated approach. New York: Wiley.

Gathercole, S. E. and Baddeley, A. 1994. Working memory and language. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Krashen, S. D. 1985. The Input Hypothesis: issues and implications. London: Longman.

Levelt, W. J. M. 1989. Speaking: from intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Levelt, W. J. M. 1999. Producing spoken language: a blueprint for the speaker. In The neurocognition of language, eds. Colin M Brown and Peter Hagoort. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. 83-122.

MacWhinney, B. ed. 1999. The emergence of language. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Marcus, G. F., Pinker, S., Ullmann, M.T., Hollander, M., Rosen, T.J. and Xu, F. 1992. Overregularization in language acquisition. With commentary by Harald Clahsen. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 57, 4 (Serial no. 228).

Radford, A., Atkinson, M., Britain, D., Clahsen, H. and Spencer, A. 1999. Linguistics: an introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Raupach, M. 1984. Formmulae in L2 speech production. In Second language productions, eds. Hans W Dechert, D Moehle and Manfred Raupach. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.

Raupach, M. 1987. Procedural learning in advanced learners of a foreign language. In The advanced language learner, eds. J Coleman and Richard Towell. London: AFLS/SUFLRA/CILT.

Reber, A. 1989. Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118: 219-235. Reber, A. 1989. Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118: 219-235.

Schmidt, R. 1990. The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics 11: 17-46.

Van Patten, B. 1996. Input processing and grammar instruction. New York: Ablex.