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Clastic Sedimentary Rocks . Derived from the Mechanical Breakup and Redeposition of Older Rocks. Clastic Rocks. Classified by: Grain Size Grain Composition Texture . The Wentworth Scale. Phi ( φ ) = -log 2 (Diameter in mm) Best way to remember: 1mm: φ = 0

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clastic sedimentary rocks

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

Derived from the Mechanical Breakup and Redeposition of Older Rocks

clastic rocks
Clastic Rocks

Classified by:

  • Grain Size
  • Grain Composition
  • Texture
the wentworth scale
The Wentworth Scale
  • Phi (φ) = -log2(Diameter in mm)
  • Best way to remember:
    • 1mm: φ = 0
    • φincreases as diameter decreases
    • Every factor of 2change in diameter = one step in φ
sediment sizes and clastic rock types
Sediment Sizes and Clastic Rock Types

Sedimentary rocks made of silt- and clay-sized particles are collectively called mudrocks, and are the most abundant sedimentary rocks.

super size me
Super-Size Me
  • Blair and McPherson, J. Sed. Res., v. 69, no. 1, Jan. 1999, p. 6-19.
  • Block: 4-65 m (φ = -12 to -16)
  • Slab: 65-1000 m (1 km) (φ = -16 to -20)
  • Monolith: 1-33 km (φ = -20 to -25)
  • Megalith: 33-1000 km (φ = -25 to -30)
some special clastic rock types
Some Special Clastic Rock Types
  • Arkose Feldspar-Rich
  • Breccia Angular Fragments
  • Graywacke Angular, Immature Sandstone
maturity
Maturity
  • Stability of Minerals
  • Rock Fragments
  • Rounding or Angularity
  • Sorting

Removal of Unstable Ingredients - Mechanical Working

diagenesis12
Diagenesis

Compaction

Cementing

  • Quartz
  • Calcite
  • Iron Oxide
  • Clay
  • Glauconite
  • Feldspar

Alteration

  • Limestone - Dolomite
  • Plagioclase – Albite

Recrystallization

  • Limestone
tectonic settings and sediment
Tectonic Settings and Sediment
  • Cratonic: Mature sandstone
  • Continental slope: Graywacke, turbidite
  • Trench: Wildflysch (contorted graywacke)
  • Post-orogenic basin: Molasse (red sandstone and conglomerate)
conglomerates
Conglomerates
  • Clast Supported vs. Matrix Supported
  • Polymictic (Outwash, alluvial fans, flood plains)
  • Oligomictic (Lag deposits)
  • Diamictic (Tills, Glacio-marine, Submarine Landslides)