Building a . Fall Protection Program. Why Use Fall Protection?.
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Building a Fall Protection Program
In 1995, 1,048 construction workers died on the job, with 32%, or 335 of them, resulting from falls. Each year, falls consistently account for the greatest number of fatalities in the construction industry, and are always a major concern in other industries. Events surrounding these types of accidents often involve a number of factors, including unstable working surfaces, misuse of fall protection equipment, and human error. Studies have shown that the use of guardrails, fall arrest systems, safety nets, covers, and travel restriction systems can prevent many deaths and injuries from falls.
Why Use Fall Protection? • Falls are the 2nd leading cause of death in industry. • Navy statistics of falls demonstrate falls actually do occur! • Required By Federal Law! 29 CFR 1910, 1915 or 1926
Traditional: Standard Guardrails Ladder Cages Hand rails Scaffolding Lifelines Non Traditional Safety Harnesses Lanyards Carabiners Self Retracting Lifelines Tie-Off Adapters Types Of Fall Protection: Common to both methods: An Engaged Brain is required
Program Elements Hazard Analysis Equipment Policy Training Inspection Rescue
Qualify Equipment? Condition? Controls? Usability? Quantify Exposure Tasks? Hazard? How controlled? Is the Hazard Unique? What Equipment And Conditions Do You Already Have!
Are The Fall Hazards Controlled With Adequate Equipment For The Tasks Performed?
Identify the Tasks Those That Do The Work Know the Tasks! ASK Them!!!
WHERE SHOPS USE FALL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT • When working 5 feet or more above a level surface • Pulling shafts, screws(props),rudders, fairplanes • On top of Conex boxes or portable buildings w/o life lines • Working on Submarine Enclosure roofs • Rigging Hull sections • Working on Hull sections
WHERE SHOPS USE FALL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT • Rigging machinery pier side, on trailers and in railcars • Attaching rigging to staging above 5 feet • Staging work above 5 feet • Removing/installing masts, antennas, waveguide, etc. • Working on hulls w/ missing deck sections; no guard rails
WHERE SHOPS USE FALL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT (CONT.) • Working from crane suspended box or basket/cage, or JLG • Working in tanks • Working aboard vessels in tall compartments (Includes multi-deck shafts, high vertical ladders, deck edge elevators, hangar deck overheads, machinery space upper levels, etc.)
WHERE SHOPS USE FALL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT (CONT.) • Rigging newly manufactured barge sections • Installing tarps on roofs, tall structures, equipment, etc. • Rigging sub roofs • Working on cranes (indoors and outdoors)
When should you use fall protection? “Click on the correct answer button” 1. When working 5 feet or more above a level surface. 2. Working on cranes (indoors and outdoors). 3. On top of Conex boxes or portable buildings 4. Working from crane suspended box or basket/cage 5. All of the above
Quantity and Quality of Equipment • 1693 Safety Belts ( 1094 c/o) • 329 Harnesses (111 c/o) • 787 Shock absorbing lanyards (324 c/o) • 1424 Lanyards w/o Shock Absorber (995 c/o) • No inspection criteria • No maintenance criteria • Majority of labels not legible • No major replacement in 15 years
Survey the Work Force • Use a Few Simple Questions Designed to Identify: • Exposure to fall hazards. • Effectiveness of current equipment. • Survey can also collect data on the stature of the work force.
Results of Hazard Analysis • Exposure to the Fall Hazards! • The Quality of the Hazard Control. • Suitability of Equipment. • The probability of occurrence and the extent of regulatory compliance can be estimated. • Use The Hazard Analysis To Determine Extent of Remaining Program Elements.
What information should your Hazard Analysis provide? The probability of occurrence and the extent of regulatory compliance Exposure to fall hazards. Data on the stature of the work force Inspection criteria, Maintenance criteria None of the Above All of the Above
Safety Harness Lanyards Heat Resistance Equipment The Equipment
SRL’s Rope Grabs Horizontal Lifelines Ladder Climbing Devices Beamers Special Devices The Equipment
Equipment Selection: • Evaluate each task individually. • Determine what equipment meets the need. • Become the expert; cause no one else is. • Look for equipment that matches multiple tasks. • Use all sources available to you. • Vendors • Federal Stock System • Manufacturers • Trade Shows • The Workers You are Trying to Protect
OSHA Standard: 1926.502(d)(18) Body harnesses OSHA Standard: 1926.502(d)(18) Body harnesses are designed to minimize stress forces on an employee's body in the event of a fall, while providing sufficient freedom of movement to allow work to be performed. Do not use body harnesses to hoist materials. As of January 1, 1998, body belts are not acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest system, because they impose a danger of internal injuries when stopping a fall.
Attachment of the body harness • OSHA Standard: 1926.502(d)(17) The attachment of the body harness must be located in the center of the wearer's back, near the shoulder level, or above the head.
Vertical Lifelines/Lanyards Self-retracting vertical lifelines and lanyards that automatically limit free fall distance to 2 feet or less must be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 3,000 pounds when in the fully extended position. If they do not automatically limit the free fall to 2 feet or less, ripstitch lanyards, and tearing and deforming lanyards, must be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds when in the fully extended position.
Webbing • OSHA Standard: 1926.502(d)(14) Webbing are the ropes and straps used in lifelines, lanyards, and strength components of body harnesses. The webbing must be made from synthetic fibers.
Anchorages • OSHA Standard:1926.502(d)(15) Anchorages used for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment must be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms, and capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds per employee attached.
Horizontal • Lifelines/Lanyards • OSHA Standard: 1926.451(g)(3)(ii) • OSHA Standard: 1926.451(g)(3)(iii) • OSHA Standard: 1926.502(d)(7) • OSHA Standard: 1926.502(d)(8) Horizontal lifelines are to be designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a qualified person, and as part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two. On suspended scaffolds or similar working platforms with horizontal lifelines that may become vertical lifelines, the devices used to connect to a horizontal lifeline must be capable of locking in both directions on the lifeline.
Connectors • OSHA Standard: 1926.502(d)(1) Connectors, including D-rings and snaphooks, must be made from drop-forged, pressed or formed steel, or equivalent materials. They must have a corrosion-resistant finish, with smooth surfaces and edges to prevent damage to connecting parts of the system.
D-Rings D-Rings must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds, and be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds without cracking, breaking, or becoming permanently deformed.
Snaphooks Snaphooks must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds, and be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds without cracking, breaking, or becoming permanently deformed. They must also be locking-type, double-locking, designed and used to prevent the disengagement of the snaphook by the contact of the snaphook keeper with the connected member.
Snaphooks • Unless it is designed for the following connections, snaphooks must not be engaged: • Directly to webbing, rope, or wire. • To each other. • To a D-ring to which another snaphook or other connector is attached. • To a horizontal lifeline. • To any object which is incompatibly shaped in relation to the snaphook such that the connected object could depress the snaphook keeper and release itself.
OSHA Standard: 1926.502(d)(9) • Vertical lifelines or lanyards must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds, and be protected against being cut or abraded. Each employee must be attached to a separate vertical lifeline, except during the construction of elevator shafts, where two employees may be attached to the same lifeline in the hoistway, provided: • Both employees are working atop a false car that is equipped with guardrails. • The strength of the lifeline is 10,000 pounds (5,000 pounds per employee). • All other lifeline criteria have been met.
Involve the Organizations That Use It! • What Fall Protection Equipment do Shops need to support the tasks identified? • Typical Answer (universal response): Safety Belt and Lanyard, or Fall Protection Is Not Possible !
Now You Know: • What the specific tasks are where employees are exposed. • What equipment is suitable to abate the Hazard.
Body Harnesses, body belt, vertical lifeline, lanyards, anchor points, lifelines, d-rings. Which types are correct examples of Fall Arrest system equipment ? Body Harnesses, snap rings, vertical lifeline, lanyards, anchor points, horizontal lifelines, d-rings, webbing. Body Harnesses, snap rings, vertical lifeline, lanyards, anchor points, webbing, horizontal lifelines, d-rings, body belt.
Self-retracting vertical lifelines which automatically limit free fall distances have what limits placed on them? 3 feet or less free fall, and 2000 pounds 2 feet or less free fall, and 5000 pounds 1 foot or less free fall, and 2000 pounds 4 feet or less free fall, and 5000 pounds 2 feet or less free fall, and 3000 pounds None of the above
Three workers are working on a roof, and have one anchor point to use between them. The anchor point has been tested to 1485 pounds support. The workers weigh 185, 192, and 155. Which is the correct anchorage point to use in the following situation? All three workers may tie off at the anchor point, because of their 532 pound combined weight. There is no need to tie off, because they are on a roof. Only workers 1 and 3 may tie off because of their combined weight. Only 2 workers may tie off because you require at least 5000 pounds per employee attached.
Made from drop-forged, pressed or formed steel, or equivalent materials. They must have a corrosion-resistant finish, with smooth surfaces and edges to prevent damage to connecting parts of the system and have a minimum tensile strength of 3,000 pounds, and be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 2,600 pounds without cracking, breaking, or becoming permanently deformed D-Rings and Snap hooks must meet which of the following requirements. Made from drop-forged, pressed or formed steel, or equivalent materials. They must have a corrosion-resistant finish, with smooth surfaces and edges to prevent damage to connecting parts of the system and have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds, and be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds without cracking, breaking, or becoming permanently deformed
Qualified Person • One with a recognized degree or certificate and with extensive knowledge and experience, capable of evaluating and developing the design, analysis, specifications, associated with the components of a Personal Fall Arrest System.
Competent Person • One capable of identifying hazards associated with the use of Personal Fall Arrest Systems and the authority to take prompt corrective measure to eliminate hazards.
Qualified / Competent Person Read more aboutQualified / Competent Person by “clicking below…………….
Building a Policy • Must include applicable regulatory requirements. • Must be simple and understandable. AND
Building a Policy • Must apply each of the tasks identified. • Must be universal within your activity. • Must be reasonable! AND
Must be Possible! With the equipment you identify.