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Beyond Classroom Management: School-based Mental Health & Positive Behavior Support. George Sugai Center for Behavioral Education and Research Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports University of Connecticut www.pbis.org George.sugai@uconn.edu March 30, 2007. pbis.org.

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beyond classroom management school based mental health positive behavior support

Beyond Classroom Management: School-based Mental Health & Positive Behavior Support

George Sugai

Center for Behavioral Education and Research

Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

University of Connecticut

www.pbis.org

George.sugai@uconn.edu

March 30, 2007

slide5
TOP FOUR 2005

Lack of financial support (since 2000)

Overcrowded schools

Lack of discipline & control

Drug use

#1 SPOT

>2000 lack of financial support

1991-2000 drug use

<1991 lack of discipline

Rose, L. C., & Gallup. A. M. (2005). 37th annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll of the public’s attitudes toward the public schools. Kappan, September, 41-59.

do you want to
Do you want to….
  • Improve general classroom & school climate & community relations
  • Decrease dependence on reactive disciplinary practices
  • Maximize impact of instruction to affect academic achievement
  • Improve behavioral supports for students with emotional & behavioral challenges
  • Improve efficiency of behavior related initiatives
purpose 7 lessons learned
Purpose: 7 Lessons Learned

Review classroom management practices from a school-wide perspective…..

context matters

1.

Context Matters!
  • Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or schools that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable
  • Learning & teaching environments must be redesigned to increase the likelihood of behavioral & academic success
examples
Examples

Individual Student

vs.

School-wide

reiko
“Reiko”

Assessments indicate that Reiko performs in average to above average range in most academic areas. However, her teacher has noticed Reiko’s frequent talking & asking & answering questions without raising her hand has become an annoying problem to other students & to teacher.

What would you do?

kiyoshi
“Kiyoshi”

Kiyoshi is a highly competent student, but has long history of antisocial behavior. He is quick to anger, & minor events quickly escalate to major confrontations. He has few friends, & most of his conflicts occur with peers in hallways & cafeteria & on bus. In last 2 months, he has been given 8 days of in school detention & 6 days of out of school suspension. In a recent event, he broke glasses of another student.

What would you do?

mitch
“Mitch”

Mitch displays a number of stereotypic (e.g., light filtering with his fingers, head rolling) & self-injurious behaviors (e.g., face slapping, arm biting), & his communications are limited to a verbal vocabulary of about 25 words. When his usual routines are changed or items are not in their usual places, his rates of stereotypic & self-injurious behavior increase quickly.

What would you do?

rachel
“Rachel”

Rachel dresses in black every day, rarely interacts with teachers or other students, & writes & distributes poems & stories about witchcraft, alien nations, gundams, & other science fiction topics. When approached or confronted by teachers, she pulls hood of her black sweatshirt or coat over her head & walks away. Mystified by Rachel’s behavior, teachers usually shake their heads & let her walk away. Recently, Rachel carefully wrapped a dead squirrel in black cloth & placed it on her desk. Other students became frightened when she began talking to it.

What would you do?

fortunately we have a science that guides us to
Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to…
  • Assess these situations
  • Develop behavior intervention plans based on our assessment
  • Monitor student progress & make enhancements

All in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriate

Crone & Horner, 2003

however context matters
However, context matters….

What factors influence our ability to implement what we know with accuracy, consistency, & durability for students like Rachel, Reiko, Mitch, & Kiyoshi?

141 days
“141 Days!”

Intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral.

Reiko is in this school!

slide18
5,100 referrals =

76,500 min @15 min =

1,275 hrs =

159 days @ 8 hrs

da place ta be
“Da place ta be”

During 4th period, in-school detention room has so many students that the overflow is sent to the counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in the hallways after the late bell.

Kiyoshi is in this school!

cliques
“Cliques”

During Advisory Class, the “sportsters” sit in the back of the room, & “goths” sit at the front. Most class activities result in out of seat, yelling arguments between the two groups.

Mitch is in this classroom!

four corners
“Four corners”

Three rival gangs are competing for “four corners.” Teachers actively avoid the area. Because of daily conflicts, vice principal has moved her desk to four corners.

Rachel is in this school!

slide22
“FTD”

On 1st day of school, a teacher found “floral” arrangement on his desk. “Welcome to the neighborhood” was written on the card

You are in this School!

questions
Questions!
  • What would behavior support look like if Mitch, Rachel, Kiyoshi, & Reiko were in these classrooms & schools?
  • Are these environments safe, caring, & effective?

Context Matters!

example teaching by getting tough
Example:“Teaching” by Getting Tough

Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.”

Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”

immediate seductive solution get tough
Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!”
  • Clamp down & increase monitoring
  • Re-re-re-review rules
  • Extend continuum & consistency of consequences
  • Establish “bottom line”

...Predictable individual response

reactive responses are predictable
Reactive responses are predictable….

When we experience aversive situation, we select interventions that produce immediate relief

  • Remove student
  • Remove ourselves
  • Modify physical environment
  • Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others
when behavior doesn t improve we get tougher
When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!”
  • Zero tolerance policies
  • Increased surveillance
  • Increased suspension & expulsion
  • In-service training by expert
  • Alternative programming

…..Predictable systems response!

erroneous assumption that student
Erroneous assumption that student…
  • Is inherently “bad”
  • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives”
  • Will be better tomorrow…….
but false sense of safety security
But….false sense of safety/security!
  • Fosters environments of control
  • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior
  • Shifts accountability away from school
  • Devalues child-adult relationship
  • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
science of behavior has taught us that students
Science of behavior has taught us that students….
  • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”
  • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences

……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback.

2.

lessons learned white house conference on school safety
Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety
  • Students, staff, & community must have means of communicating that is immediate, safe, & reliable
  • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting student-teacher-family relationships are important
  • High rates of academic & social success are important
  • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting school environment/climate is important for all students
  • Metal detectors, surveillance cameras, & security guards are insufficient deterrents
lessons learned white house conference on school safety33
Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety

Early Correlates/Indicators

  • Significant change in academic &/or social behavior patterns
  • Frequent, unresolved victimization
  • Extremely low rates of academic &/or social success
  • Negative/threatening written &/or verbal messages
good teaching is one of our best behavior management tools
Good teaching is one of our best behavior management tools

3.

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

Good Teaching

Behavior Management

Increasing District & State Competency and Capacity

Investing in Outcomes, Data, Practices, and Systems

slide35

4.

Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

APPLY CONTINUUM OF INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students

rti good idea policy
RtI: Good “IDEA” Policy
  • Approach to increase efficiency, accountability, & impact
  • NOT program, curriculum, strategy, intervention
  • NOT limited to special education
  • NOT new
    • Problem solving process
    • Diagnostic-prescriptive teaching
    • Curriculum based assessment
    • Precision teaching
    • Applied behavior analysis
  • Demonstrations
    • Systemic early literacy
    • School-wide positive behavior support
designing school wide systems for student success

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • High Intensity
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Universal Interventions
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive
Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%

implications cautions e g gresham grimes kratochwill tilly etc
Implications & Cautions(E.g., Gresham, Grimes, Kratochwill, Tilly, etc.)
  • Psychometric features of measures for student outcomes & universal screening?
  • Standardized measurement procedures?
  • Valid & documented “cut” criteria for determining responsiveness?
  • Interventions efficacy, effectiveness, & relevance?
  • Students with disabilities?
  • Professional development?
  • Applications across grades/schools & curriculum areas?
  • Treatment integrity & accountability?
  • Functioning of general v. special education?
slide41

5.

Link Classroom to School-wide Positive

Behavior Support Systems

Classroom

Setting Systems

Nonclassroom

Setting Systems

Individual Student

Systems

School-wide

Systems

slide42

School-wide Systems

1. Common purpose & approach to discipline

2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors

3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior

4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior

5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior

6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation

slide43

Classroom

Setting Systems

  • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged
  • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged
  • Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction
  • Active supervision
  • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors
  • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors
  • Effective academic instruction & curriculum
slide44

Nonclassroom

Setting Systems

  • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged
  • Active supervision by all staff
    • Scan, move, interact
  • Precorrections & reminders
  • Positive reinforcement
slide45

Individual Student

Systems

  • Behavioral competence at school & district levels
  • Function-based behavior support planning
  • Team- & data-based decision making
  • Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes
  • Targeted social skills & self-management instruction
  • Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations
slide47

Redesign Learning & Teaching Environment

School Rules

NO Food

NO Weapons

NO Backpacks

NO Drugs/Smoking

NO Bullying

reviewing strive for five
Reviewing Strive for Five
  • Be respectful.
  • Be safe.
  • Work peacefully.
  • Strive for excellence.
  • Follow directions.

McCormick Elem. MD 2003

slide50

TEACHING

MATRIX

Expectations

slide51

TEACHING

MATRIX

Expectations

slide54

RRespectTo show consideration, appreciation, and acceptance

• Respect yourself• Respect others• Demonstrate appropriate language and behavior

IIntegrityAdherence to an agreed upon code of behavior

• Be responsible• Do your own work• Be trustworthy and trust others

DDisciplineManaging ones self to achieve goals and meet expectations

• Strive for consistency• Attend class daily; be on time• Meet deadlines; do your homework

PPerseveranceHolding to a course of action despite obstacles

• Stay positive• Set goals• Learn from mistakes

EExcellenceBeing of finest or highest quality

• Do your personal best• Exceed minimum expectations• Inspire excellence in others

NEHS website, Oct. 26, 2004

character education
Character Education
  • Easy to change moral knowledge.....difficult to change moral conduct
  • To change moral conduct...
    • Adults must model moral behavior
    • Students must experience academic success
    • Students must be taught social skills for success
slide57

Cougar Traits in the Community Student Name __________________________________Displayed the Cougar Trait of: Respect Responsibility Caring Citizenship (Circle the trait you observed)Signature _____________________________________________If you would like to write on the back the details of what you observed feel free! Thank you for supporting our youth.

are rewards dangerous
Are “Rewards” Dangerous?

“…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.”

  • Cameron, 2002
    • Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002
    • Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001
clever variations
Clever Variations
  • Bus Bucks
  • Super Sub Slips
  • Golden Plunger
  • G.O.O.S.E.
  • First-in-Line
  • Patriot’s Parking Pass
  • Business Partner Discount

What really matters

is positive social

acknowledgement

& interaction!!

slide60

7.

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

Invest in establishing adequate staff support

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior

slide62

Pre

Post

odr admin benefit springfield ms md
ODR Admin. BenefitSpringfield MS, MD

2001-2002 2277

2002-2003 1322

= 955 42% improvement

= 14,325 min. @15 min.

= 238.75 hrs

= 40 days Admin. time

odr instruc benefit springfield ms md
ODR Instruc. BenefitSpringfield MS, MD

2001-2002 2277

2002-2003 1322

= 955 42% improvement

= 42,975 min. @ 45 min.

= 716.25 hrs

= 119 days Instruc. time

slide65

4J School District

Eugene, Oregon

Change in the percentage of students meeting the state standard in reading at grade 3 from 97-98 to 01-02 for schools using PBIS all four years and those that did not.

slide68

N =23

N = 8

N = 8

N = 23

slide69

05%

20%

11%

22%

84%

58%

slide70

Mean Proportion of Students

3%

8%

89%

10%

16%

74%

11%

18%

71%

K=6 (N = 1010) 6-9 (N = 312) 9-12 (N = 104)

slide71

32%

43%

25%

48%

37%

15%

45%

40%

15%

K-6 (N = 1010) 6-9 (N = 312) 9-12 (N = 104)

slide72

http://rtckids.fmhi.usf.edu

Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Lynn, N. (2006). School-based mental health: An empirical guide for decision makers.Tampa, FL: University of South Florida. Louis De la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Department of Child & Family Studies, Research & Training Center for Children’s Mental Health.

references
References
  • Colvin, G., & Lazar, M. (1997). The effective elementary classroom: Managing for success. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
  • Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Patching, W. (1993). Pre-correction: An instructional strategy for managing predictable behavior problems. Intervention in School and Clinic, 28, 143-150.
  • Darch, C. B., & Kameenui, E. J. (2003). Instructional classroom management: A proactive approach to behavior management. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
  • Jones, V. F. & Jones, L. S. (2001). Comprehensive classroom management: Creating communities of support and solving problems (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Kameenui, E. J., & Carnine, D. W. (2002). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
  • Latham, G. I. (1997). Behind the schoolhouse door: Eight skills every teacher should have. Utah State University.
  • Latham, G. (1992). Interacting with at-risk children: The positive position. Principal, 72(1), 26-30.
  • Martella, R. C., Nelson, J. R., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (2003). Managing disruptive behaviors in the schools: A schoolwide, classroom, and individualized social learning approach. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Paine, S. C., Radicchi, J., Rosellini, L. C., Deutchman, L., & Darch, C. B. (1983). Structuring your classroom for academic success. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
slide74
CONTACT INFO

George.sugai@uconn.edu

Brandi.simonsen@uconn.edu

www.pbis.org