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Absolutism and Leviathan I: The State of Nature Thomas Hobbes Overview Psychological Egoism Equality The “State of Nature” Psychological Egoism The Question: Why do people do the things they do?

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Presentation Transcript
overview
Overview
  • Psychological Egoism
  • Equality
  • The “State of Nature”
psychological egoism
Psychological Egoism
  • The Question: Why do people do the things they do?
  • The Egoist Answer: Whenever a person does anything, it is for some perceived personal benefit.
    • Corrollary: No one will do anything unless there is something in it for him or her.
  • This is Hobbes’s basic assumption about human nature.
equality
Equality
  • Factual vs. Moral Equality
  • Hobbes thinks people are equal in fact.
  • Varieties of Equality
    • Equality of Physical Strength
    • Equality of Wit
    • Equality of Ambition
  • The Evidence about Wit: How Smart are You?
life in the state of nature
Life in the State of Nature
  • Sources of Conflict
    • Competition
    • “Diffidence”
    • Glory
  • The War of All Against All
    • Actual Fighting
    • Readiness to Fight
  • Justice in the State of Nature
  • “Solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”
review questions
Review Questions
  • What is Hobbes’ view of human motivation?
  • What is the State of Nature?
  • How does Hobbes describe life in the State of Nature?
  • Why does he think life in the State of Nature would be like that?