Absolutism and Leviathan I: The State of Nature - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Absolutism and Leviathan I: The State of Nature

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  1. Absolutism and Leviathan I: The State of Nature Thomas Hobbes

  2. Overview • Psychological Egoism • Equality • The “State of Nature”

  3. Psychological Egoism • The Question: Why do people do the things they do? • The Egoist Answer: Whenever a person does anything, it is for some perceived personal benefit. • Corrollary: No one will do anything unless there is something in it for him or her. • This is Hobbes’s basic assumption about human nature.

  4. Equality • Factual vs. Moral Equality • Hobbes thinks people are equal in fact. • Varieties of Equality • Equality of Physical Strength • Equality of Wit • Equality of Ambition • The Evidence about Wit: How Smart are You?

  5. Life in the State of Nature • Sources of Conflict • Competition • “Diffidence” • Glory • The War of All Against All • Actual Fighting • Readiness to Fight • Justice in the State of Nature • “Solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”

  6. Review Questions • What is Hobbes’ view of human motivation? • What is the State of Nature? • How does Hobbes describe life in the State of Nature? • Why does he think life in the State of Nature would be like that?