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Applied Anthropometry and the Workplace. Anthropometry A. Description of the physical variation in humans by measurement; a basic technique of physical anthropology. B. The measurement of the dimensions and certain other physical characteristics of the body. Measuring Types .

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applied anthropometry and the workplace
Applied Anthropometry and the Workplace
  • Anthropometry
    • A. Description of the physical variation in humans by measurement; a basic technique of physical anthropology.
  • B. The measurement of the
    • dimensions and certain other
    • physical characteristics of the
    • body.
measuring types
Measuring Types
  • A. Static (structural) - taken while the body is in a static position
    • 1. Skeletal dimensions - joint-to-joint measurement
    • 2. Maximum body width
  • 3. Data available on most
    • characteristics of the body
  • NASA Anthropometric Source
    • Book. (vol 2, 1978)
measuring types1
Measuring Types
  • B. Dynamic (functional)
    • 1. Measurements taken while the body is engaged in some kind of activity
      • a. Driving a car
      • b. Working at a desk / VDT terminal
applications
Applications
  • Principles
    • 1. Design for extremes of individuals (or the population)
      • a. Maximum: automobile interiors, escape hatches, doorway
      • b. Minimum: applied force, reach distances
  • c. Most designs cover 5th
  • through 95th percentile
principles
Principles
  • 2. Design with an adjustable range
    • a. Design should "fit" 5th through 95th percentile of relevant population
    • b. Involves a trade-off with cost/complexity
  • 3. Design for the average
    • - vs. design for the extreme
    • (seat height, counter tops,
      • letter height)
slide6

Principles

  • 4. Variability of population -
    • Anthropomorphic measurements are a functionof age, gender, nationality, user type and several other factors
applications of design principles
Applications of Design Principles
  • A. Bittner
    • Taking 13 dimensions between 5th and 95th percentile excluded 52% of the population
  • B. Body dimensions are not perfectly correlated
  • Short legs with a long torso
    • in automobile design
applications of design principles1
Applications of Design Principles
  • C. Physical modeling
    • 1. Computer programs to model human movement
    • 2. Dummies are used to represent specific percentiles
      • - crash tests for autos
general approach for design evaluation
General Approach for Design Evaluation
  • A. Determine the body dimensions which will be important in the use of the system
  • B. Define the relevant (user) population
  • C. Which design principle
    • will be used
slide10

General Approach for Design Evaluation

  • D. What percentage of the population it is to be designed for
  • E. Determine the relevant value from the anthropomorphic tables
  • F. Add appropriate allowances for special situations
  • 1. Bulky clothing worn in
    • cold weather
  • 2. Protective clothing worn by
    • hazardous duty personnel
work spaces envelopes
Work Spaces (Envelopes)
  • A. Work Space Envelope
  • Defined as the 3-dimensional space around an individual in which it is reasonably optimal for persons to perform some type of manual activity
  • B. Seated personnel
  • 1. Most important factor in this position is arm reach
  • a. direction ofreach
  • b. task to be performed (grasp, fingertip operation)
  • c. type of reaching motion (restricted/unrestricted)
slide12

Work Spaces (Envelopes)

    • 2. Design for the minimum (5th percentile) - Makes it useful for 95% of the population
    • 3. Consider apparel worn
  • C. Standing Personnel
    • 1. vs. seated
      • a. Larger workspace is defined
      • (due to ability to bend/reach)
  • b. Workspace is dynamic
      • (moves as the person moves)
work spaces envelopes1
Work Spaces (Envelopes)
  • D. Clearance Requirements
    • workers need to fit into awkward or restrictive spaces sometimes.
    • i.e. maintenance or emergency hatches.
work surfaces
Work Surfaces
  • A. Horizontal Surfaces (tables, desks, counters)
    • 1. Normal area - area covered by sweep of the forearm while the upper arm remains in a natural position
  • 2. Maximum area - area which
    • can be reached by extending
    • the arm from the shoulder
slide15

Work Surfaces

  • B. Slanted Surfaces
    • vs. horizontal
    • a. Eastman and Kodat (use of slanted surfaces, 12-24 degrees, gives better posture, less fatigue/discomfort
    • b. Drafting tables, computer keyboards
    • C. Height of Work Surfaces
work surfaces1
Work Surfaces
  • Guidelines
    • a. Make it adjustable where possible (legs/feet, slant)
    • b. Forearm should be level of slightly down with shoulders relaxed (not hunched)
    • c. Allow for a "straight" spine (posture) to reduce strain and fatigue in the back muscles/spine
  • d. Adjustable for type of activity
    • to be performed
work surfaces2
Work Surfaces
  • 2. For Standing Personnel
    • a. Precision work (work level even with or slightly above elbow height)
    • b. Light / Heavy work (work level should be below elbow height)
seating
Seating
  • Principles of Seat Design
    • 1. Back support should be used
      • a. Lower support most critical to reduce fatigue and eliminate back pain
      • b. Lordotic (concave) preferred over Kyphotic (convex)
slide19

Seating

  • 2. Seat height and slope
  • a. Generally, seat height should
    • be low enough so as to reduce
    • pressure on the underside of
    • the thigh (reduces blood flow
    • to the legs)
  • b. Common to design seats for
    • minimum (5th percent)
slide20

Seating

  • 3. Seat depth and width
      • a. For public seating, depth should be designed for a minimum while the width should be designed for the maximum
  • b. Spacing between seats
    • should be at least 20 inches
guidelines for seat design
Guidelines for Seat Design
  • A. Seat back should provide support for lumbar (lower) area
  • B. Seat back should have moderate inclination (10-30 degrees)
  • C. Seat pan should slope back slightly
  • D. Angle between seat pan
    • and back is 95-120 degrees
slide22

Guidelines for Seat Design

  • E. Seat height and backrest should be adjustable
  • F. Seat height designed for small people, width for large people
  • G. Use moderately contoured seat pan for weight distribution
slide23

Guidelines for Seat Design: ANSI Standard

  • Seat Height and Slope:
    • - fixed height: 18 - 19”
    • - adjustable height: 16 - 20.5”
    • - slope: 0 - 10o backward tilt
  • Seat Depth and Width:
    • - depth: 15 - 17”
    • - width: 18.2”
guidelines for seat design ansi standard
Guidelines for Seat Design: ANSI Standard
  • Contour and Cushioning:
    • - contour: tradeoffs between even weight distribution vs. restricting movement and postural fixity.
    • - cushion: 1.5 - 2” thick.
  • Seat Back:
    • - angle: minimum 90 - 105o with respect to the seat pan. Up to 120o prefered.
    • - width: minimum 12” in the lumbar region.
    • - height: minimum 19.5”.
    • - lumbar support: 6 - 9” high, 12” wide, positioned 6 - 10” above seat reference point, and protrude ~ 2” from back rest.