ancient political theory n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Ancient Political Theory PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Ancient Political Theory

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

Ancient Political Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 189 Views
  • Uploaded on

Ancient Political Theory. Aristotle’s Politics. Aristotle. Aristotle’s Conservatism: Rule of Law The End of Antiquity The Rise of Christianity. Power Point Tips. Download and save the file to disc. Use the Print command (not the print icon) to open the print menu

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Ancient Political Theory


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
ancient political theory

Ancient Political Theory

Aristotle’s Politics

aristotle
Aristotle
  • Aristotle’s Conservatism: Rule of Law
  • The End of Antiquity
  • The Rise of Christianity
power point tips
Power Point Tips
  • Download and save the file to disc.
  • Use the Print command (not the print icon) to open the print menu
  • Choose the “print what” option and select “handout”
  • Unless you have a color printer, select “grayscale” option
  • Select how many slides per page you’d like, then hit “print”
aristotle s conservatism rule of law
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • Most modern political thinkers believe that good political societies can be made through revolution
  • We take revolutionaries seriously as moral figures
aristotle s conservatism rule of law1
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • Notice, that nowhere in the Politics does Aristotle offer advice on how to subvert tyrannies (but he does give advice [Book V, chapter 11] on how tyrannies can hold onto power)
aristotle s conservatism rule of law2
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • The obvious implication of that is that Aristotle does not think that revolution is a good idea
  • Why not?
  • Go back to his understanding of the polis and the end of man
  • Revolution generally comes through violent means
aristotle s conservatism rule of law3
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • But violence (and hence revolution) are apolitical acts since neither has anything to do with reason and speech.
  • Animals settle their differences by fighting
aristotle s conservatism rule of law4
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • Revolution is the point where we’ve given up on reason and speech, and…
  • It doesn’t usually work out for the best in the long run
aristotle s conservatism rule of law5
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • Aristotle is conservative in the strict sense of the term
    • Change is generally not for the better
    • We shouldn’t undermine customs, mores, and traditions of the polis
aristotle s conservatism rule of law6
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • No good political situation can endure without the rule of law
  • By “law” here also include the habitual rules we have for social interaction
  • Note, the force of a law, compulsive power of law, only comes through habit
aristotle s conservatism rule of law7
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • For example, let’s examine the rules of etiquette
aristotle s conservatism rule of law8
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • How do we judge the merit of different conventions? Can we do that?
    • Can’t compare between the conventions, only within them
    • Better for those within the society governed by the convention to abide the convention
aristotle s conservatism rule of law9
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • What do we lose by trashing (allegedly) arbitrary rules of etiquette?
    • Etiquette is a form of communication
    • Its rules create expectations which enrich life by providing us with another avenue of communication besides language
aristotle s conservatism rule of law10
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • Customs are a set of conventions which enable us to have a common life together (remember Aristotle’s understanding of the polis)
  • The idea that a culture can be “made” is self-defeating in that by taking away conventions we limit and erode the available avenues of communication
aristotle s conservatism rule of law11
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • Laws and Freedom (1)
    • Laws don’t just limit action, but provide the means for conducting other activities (think of the etiquette example again)
    • Obeying law provides another avenue for freedom/creativity
    • Laws and rules don’t simply or only take away. They also provide.
aristotle s conservatism rule of law12
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • Force of Law: Habit
  • Instilling new customs?
    • How to do it?
      • Can’t speak or reason (for example, why not wear a hat inside? Why say “bless you” at a sneeze?)
    • Ultimately, the only way to change is through force
aristotle s conservatism rule of law13
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • Laws and Freedom (2)
    • It is possible to obey laws without obeying any person, since no single person is responsible for their being there
    • Allows for the possibility of giving oneself to law without becoming a slave to anyone
aristotle s conservatism rule of law14
Aristotle’s Conservatism:Rule of Law
  • Can’t create a community because we can’t create conventions. They are passed down from traditions of common life and shared history
  • Conventions, laws, and habit are what make a community
  • Moreover, it is precisely this community which is the prerequisite for a the good political life (in the Aristotleian sense)
the end of antiquity
The End of Antiquity
  • The Decline of the Polis
    • Polis collapsing, entering the age of empire and moving towards the modern nation/state
    • The distinctive feature: increase size of political life
      • Implication: development of an impersonal ethics
the end of antiquity1
The End of Antiquity
  • The increased diversity within the larger political unit means we no longer share so much in common
  • At least not as much as was typical in era of the city-state
    • Moving from neighborhood to neighboring states
    • Examples?
the end of antiquity2
The End of Antiquity
  • Implications?
    • Effect on our estimation of the moral worth of persons
    • Recall Aristotle’s definition of citizen: someone capable of ruling and being ruled in turn
      • In other words, participation in common decision making process
      • Question? – when we expand size of the basic political unit, is that understanding of citizen still viable?
the end of antiquity3
The End of Antiquity
  • We no longer see our moral life bound up with the polis
  • That is, we seek our moral life in other nonpolitical subgroups
  • We begin to detach our moral values and our political life
  • Politics becomes increasingly associated with administration rather than a shared journey in pursuit of the good life
the end of antiquity4
The End of Antiquity
  • We moderns no longer even attempt to allow for the moral development of citizens as the aim of our political life
  • For purposes of this new political life, all men are created equal – all are subject to the same laws
rise of christianity
Rise of Christianity
  • Influence of Judeo-Christian values in the west
    • Each of us has a soul created in image of infinitely omnipotent, omnibenevolent, omniscient God
    • Is there meaning to life? How could life have meaning?
rise of christianity1
Rise of Christianity
  • If we accept the question is intelligible, how can it be made to make sense?
    • e.g., characters in literature have meaning because they are imparted meaning by the author who created him/her
    • We are purposes whose life has meaning because the author of existence – God – has imparted meaning in His creation; i.e., God exists
rise of christianity2
Rise of Christianity
  • Proof of God’s existence
  • Order of the Universe
    • Divine Watchmaker
      • Plenitude
      • Continuity
      • Chain of being
slide27

T

H

E

G

R

E

A

T

C

H

A

I

N

O

F

B

E

I

N

G

God

Angels

Extraterrestials

Human Beings

Mammals

Reptiles

Fish

Plants

Pond Scum

rise of christianity3
Rise of Christianity
  • Note that this is a rational approach, not necessarily religious
  • Note also that sometimes it is rational to believe testimony without proof – not necessarily a product of “leap of faith”
rise of christianity4
Rise of Christianity
  • For example, for most of us, we accept mom’s testimony on the identity of dad.
  • We only know the identity of our fathers through mom’s word, and we accept it without proof (most of us haven’t had DNA/paternity tests done to confirm the identity of our father)
rise of christianity5
Rise of Christianity
  • The only assumption that gives meaning to the question of the meaning of life is that God exists, we know God exists and we know His revealed word is found in the Bible
rise of christianity6
Rise of Christianity
  • If we accept the validity of the Bible and its revealed word, then the equality of man is found in the soul
    • Soul means:
      • God is infinitely more valuable than man
      • Man is more valuable than everything else on earth (except other men)
      • Hierarchy ends at people
rise of christianity7
Rise of Christianity
  • Good life?
    • Consciously doing what God wants me to do
    • Virtue: now means “amazing grace”
      • Touched by God, gratuitously, not by desert
      • Can’t force God’s hand, in other words
      • Our salvation comes through act of God
rise of christianity8
Rise of Christianity
  • Political Implications of this development?
  • What follows if the universe and everything in it was created by an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent deity?