Course Notes Set 8: Linear Lists: Simulated Pointer Implementation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Course Notes Set 8: Linear Lists: Simulated Pointer Implementation

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  1. Course Notes Set 8:Linear Lists:Simulated PointerImplementation COMP 2210 Dr. Hendrix Computer Science and Software Engineering Auburn University

  2. Limitations Of Java Pointers May be used for internal data structures only. Data structure backup requires serialization and deserialization. No arithmetic.

  3. Memory Layout c a e d b Data structure memory is an array, and each array position has an element field (type Object) and a next field (type int).

  4. Node Representation class SimulatedNode { // package visible data members Object element; int next; // constructors not shown }

  5. How It All Looks c a e d b 14 firstNode = 4 next 11 14 -1 8 0 c a e d b element 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 11 14

  6. Still Drawn The Same firstNode -1 a b c d e

  7. Exercise 1 p 204 Sahni with Simulated Pointers Initial state firstNode = 4 next • 14 11 14 -1 8 0 c a e d b element 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 11 14 add(0,f) firstNode = 1 next • 14 4 11 14 -1 8 0 f c a e d b element 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 11 14

  8. Exercise 1 p 204 Sahni with Simulated Pointers add(3,g) firstNode = 1 next • 14 4 11 0 14 -1 8 2 f g c a e d b element 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 11 14 add(7,h) firstNode = 1 next • 14 4 11 0 14 3 8 2 -1 f g c a e d b h element 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 11 14

  9. Exercise 1 p 204 Sahni with Simulated Pointers remove(0) firstNode = 4 next • 14 11 0 14 3 8 2 -1 g c a e d b h element 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 11 14 remove(4) firstNode = 4 next • 14 0 14 3 2 8 -1 g c a e b h element 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 11 14

  10. Memory Management Linked system (Java or simulated pointer) requires: a way to keep track of the memory that is not in use (i.e., a storage pool) way to allocate a node Java has the method new way to free a node that is no longer in use Java uses garbage collection

  11. Garbage Collection The system determines which nodes/memory are not in use and returns these nodes (this memory) to the pool of free storage. This is done in two or three steps: Mark nodes in use. Compact free space (optional). Move free nodes to storage pool.

  12. Marking c a e d b firstNode Unmark all nodes. Start at each program variable that contains a reference, follow all pointers, mark nodes that are reached.

  13. Marking c c a a e e d d b e firstNode Start at firstNode and mark all nodes reachable from firstNode. Repeat for all reference variables.

  14. Compaction Free Memory c a e d b e d b firstNode Move all marked nodes (I.e., nodes in use) to one end of memory, updating all pointers as necessary.

  15. Put Free Memory In Storage Pool Scan memory for unmarked nodes (if no compaction done), otherwise put single free block (unless no free memory) into pool.

  16. Advantages Of Garbage Collection Programmer doesn’t have to worry about freeing nodes as they become free. However, for garbage collection to be effective, we must set reference variables to null when the object being referenced is no longer needed.

  17. Advantages Of Garbage Collection Applications may run faster when run on computers that have more memory.

  18. Disadvantage Of Garbage Collection Garbage collection time is linear in memory size (not in amount of free memory).

  19. Alternative To Garbage Collection Provide a method to free/deallocate a node. e.g., delete method of C++ Now free nodes are always in storage pool.

  20. Advantage Of Alternative Time to free nodes is proportional to number of nodes being freed and not to total memory size.

  21. Disadvantages Of Alternative User must write methods to free data structure nodes. Time is spent freeing nodes that may not be reused. Application run time does not improve with increase in memory size.

  22. Storage Pool Organization When All Nodes Have Same Size firstNode null a b c d e • Maintain a chain of free nodes • Allocate from front of chain • Add node that is freed to chain front

  23. Simulated Pointer Memory Management /** memory management for simulated pointer classes */ package dataStructures; import utilities.*; public class SimulatedSpace1 { // data members private int firstNode; SimulatedNode [] node; // package visible // constructor and other methods come here }

  24. Constructor public SimulatedSpace1(int numberOfNodes) { node = new SimulatedNode [numberOfNodes]; // create nodes and link into a chain for (int i = 0; i < numberOfNodes - 1; i++) node[i] = new SimulatedNode(i + 1); // last node of array and chain node[numberOfNodes - 1] = new SimulatedNode(-1); // firstNode has the default initial value 0 }

  25. Allocate A Node public int allocateNode(Object element, int next) {// Allocate a free node and set its fields. if (firstNode == -1) { // double number of nodes, code omitted } int i = firstNode; // allocate first node firstNode = node[i].next; // firstNode points to next free node node[i].element = element; node[i].next = next; return i; }

  26. Free A Node public void deallocateNode(int i) {// Free node i. // make i first node on free space list node[i].next = firstNode; firstNode = i; // remove element reference so that space can be garbage // collected node[i].element = null; }

  27. Simulated Pointers Can allocate a chain of nodes without having to relink. Can free a chain of nodes in O(1) time when first and last nodes of chain are known. Don’t use unless you see a clear advantage to using simulated pointers over Java references.