Monolithic microfabricated valves and pumps by multilayer soft lithography
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Monolithic Microfabricated Valves and Pumps by Multilayer Soft Lithography. Unger et al. (Quake group, CALTECH) Science, 2000. EECE 491C. How complex and how big?. ENIAC, first large scale electronic and digital computer 30 tons, 19,000 vacuum tubes, 200 kW Towards integrated circuits

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Monolithic microfabricated valves and pumps by multilayer soft lithography
Monolithic Microfabricated Valves and Pumps by Multilayer Soft Lithography

Unger et al. (Quake group, CALTECH)

Science, 2000

EECE 491C


How complex and how big
How complex and how big? Soft Lithography

  • ENIAC, first large scale electronic and digital computer

  • 30 tons, 19,000 vacuum tubes, 200 kW

  • Towards integrated circuits

  • Large Scale Integrated Circuits (LSI)

Courtesy www-ivs.cs.uni-magdeburg.de

EECE 491C


Biochemical laboratories
Biochemical Laboratories Soft Lithography

  • Expensive Reagents

  • Small amounts of samples available

  • High levels of multiplicity required

  • Portability

  • Equipment Costs

  • Level of training

Courtesy www.nature.com/ vol 442- Yager

Courtesy www.stanford.edu/group/crg

EECE 491C


Microelectromecanichal structures mems
Microelectromecanichal structures (MEMS) Soft Lithography

  • Bulk micromachining:

  • Single-Crystal silicon lithographically patterned then etched

  • Stress between layers

  • Surface Micromachining:

  • Additive method

  • Patterning. Max thickness 20 um

  • Limited materials

  • Stiff materials = hard to make smaller features

Courtesy http://dei-s1.dei.uminho.pt

Courtesy http://www.aero.org

EECE 491C


Soft lithography
Soft Lithography Soft Lithography

  • With only one layer it is difficult to create active devices or moving parts

EECE 491C


Multilayer soft lithography
Multilayer Soft Lithography Soft Lithography

  • Can bond different layers of elastomer

  • Elastomer: silicon rubber, 2 component, polymer and cross-linker

  • Each layer has excess of one of the 2

  • Upon contact layers form hermetic seal

  • Can easily create multilayer devices

  • Can create electro-magnetic devices by doping

EECE 491C


Valves
Valves Soft Lithography

  • Fluid is introduced with pins

  • Can accept up to 300 kPa without leakage

  • Typical channel size X

  • Membrane between layers

  • Response time ~1ms

  • 1mN of force (100kPa)

  • Pneumatic activation: dense packing possible

EECE 491C


Valves and pressure
Valves and Pressure Soft Lithography

  • Flow Layer: biological assay, fluid manipulation

  • Control Layer: actuate valves

  • Valve opening controlled by fluorescence

EECE 491C


From valves to pumps
From Valves to Pumps Soft Lithography

  • A - on/off valve 200x100

  • B - on/off valve 30x50

  • C - peristaltic pump

  • D - grid of valves

  • E - switching valve

  • F - section of 7 layer device

  • Scale bars: 200 um

EECE 491C


Elastomeric peristaltic pump
Elastomeric Peristaltic Pump Soft Lithography

  • 50 kPa of applied pressure

  • Channels 100 um wide and 10 um high

  • Durable

  • E coli showed 94% survival rate

EECE 491C


Valves and pumps
Valves and Pumps Soft Lithography

  • Durable

  • Low dead volumes

  • Complete sealing even in presence of particulates

  • Easy to produce

  • Cheap

  • Rapid prototyping

  • Multiple layers possible

  • Transparent

  • Biocompatible

  • Countless applications

Courtesy nature.com vol 442 Whitesides, Quake

EECE 491C


Valves and pumps1
Valves and Pumps Soft Lithography

Courtesy Carl Hansen

EECE 491C


Valves and pumps2
Valves and Pumps Soft Lithography

Courtesy Carl Hansen

EECE 491C


Microfluidic large scale integration
Microfluidic Large-Scale Integration Soft Lithography

Thorsen et al. (Quake group, CALTECH)

Science, 2002

EECE 491C


The multiplexor
The Multiplexor Soft Lithography

  • Microvalves are scalable and leakproof

  • Can now have multiplexed addressing and control

  • Binary tree

  • fluid channels

  • control channels

  • Only 20 control for 1024 flow channels

EECE 491C


Memory storage design
Memory Storage Design Soft Lithography

  • 1000 individually addressable 250pL chambers

  • Microfluidic memory storage device

  • Similar to Random Access Memory (RAM)

EECE 491C


Memory storage
Memory Storage Soft Lithography

  • Row Multiplexor: fluid trafficking (RAM word line) refreshes compartments within a row

  • Column Multiplexor: controls vertical input-output valves for specific central compartments

  • Display Monitor

EECE 491C


Microfluidic comparator chip
Microfluidic Comparator Chip Soft Lithography

  • Allows mixing of 2 separate reagents, unloading

  • 256 rxn chambers

EECE 491C


The experiment
The Experiment Soft Lithography

  • Ecoli in one compartment

  • Amplex red (AR) in the other column

  • Compartments opened

  • CCP converts AR to resorufin

  • Control using GFP

EECE 491C


Controls
Controls Soft Lithography

  • Heterogeneous mixture of E. coli expressing CCP or eGFP

  • Amplified signal dependent only on number of CCP expressing cells in individual chambers

EECE 491C


Conclusions
Conclusions Soft Lithography

  • Ability to integrate and control many fluidic elements

  • Selective manipulation and recovery

  • Scalable devices

  • Can envision chemical and biochemical analysis

  • High throughput screening applications, liquid display technology

  • Creation of microfluidic LSI

  • Rapid, simple fabrication

  • Disadvantages of PDMS

EECE 491C


Critique
Critique Soft Lithography

Monolithic Microfabricated Valves and Pumps by Multilayer Soft Lithography

  • Well presented, ground-breaking

  • Limited discussion of other techniques available

  • Weak Biological experiments or applications

  • Limited discussion of flaws of the materials used

  • Certain figures are not very detailed

  • Would have been interesting to see a picture of the entire device

EECE 491C


Critique1
Critique Soft Lithography

Microfluidic Large Scale Integration

  • Well presented, ground-breaking, great intro

  • Explanatory analogies

  • Weak Biological experiments-weaker ending

  • More thorough discussion of flaws of the materials used

  • One figure mislabeled

  • Great device pictures

EECE 491C