management of the blue and john crow mountains national park by jcdt green jamaica n.
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Management of the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park by JCDT/Green Jamaica. The Blue & John Crow Mountains National Park (BJCMNP) . Established February, 1993 (under NRCA Act) Forest Reserve (1940s) boundary

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Management of the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park by JCDT/Green Jamaica


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    1. Management of the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park by JCDT/Green Jamaica

    2. The Blue & John Crow Mountains National Park (BJCMNP) • Established February, 1993 (under NRCA Act) • Forest Reserve (1940s) boundary • Planimetric Area: 495.2 km2 (about 46,000 ha) – 4.5% island’s surface area • Topographic Area: about 78,000 ha (193,000 acres) – 9% island’s surface area • Largest contiguous area of closed broadleaf forest in Jamaica - about 1/3 of all the closed broadleaf forest left on the island • Has limestone & igneous/metamorphic rocks

    3. Blue & John Crow Mountains National Park– Highly Significant For: • Watershed Management • protecting 10 upper watershed management units • water supply • providing drinking water • for over 40% of the population of Jamaica • soil conservation

    4. Blue & John Crow Mountains National Park– Highly Significant For: • Carbon Sequestration • Forests sequester or store carbon dioxide, helping mitigate against global warming

    5. Blue & John Crow Mountains National Park– Highly Significant For: • Biodiversity • Wide variety of unique forest types due to high elevation & volcanic rocks • Habitat for endemic, threatened & native species • Internationally recognised

    6. Blue & John Crow Mountains National Park– Highly Significant For: • Cultural Heritage • Maroon communities & culture - Moore Town, Charles Town • Traditional Jamaican villages • language, music, dance etc. • Military History e.g. Newcastle • Blue Mountain Coffee

    7. Blue & John Crow Mountains National Park– Highly Significant For: • Economic potential • Recreational and tourism opportunities • Pharmaceuticals • Non-traditional agricultural & horticultural produce & added value products

    8. Blue & John Crow Mountains National Park– A Potential UNESCO World Heritage Site ? • World Heritage Sites • Are very special • Receive international recognition • Jamaica has none yet • Caribbean has few • Jamaica has nominated the BJCMNP as a UNESCO WHS JCDT was responsible for the research/documentation

    9. Background to the BJCMNP Management Plan • Management Plan for the BJCMNP is supposed to be prepared every 5 years. • Last Management Plan was prepared in 2004/5 with funding from EFJ = BJCMNP Management Plan 2005 - 2010 • Plan was developed using: • best conservation science knowledge (building on Site Conservation Plan) • experience (incl. review of 1992 and other Plans) • a participatory process involving about 200 stakeholders: Steering Committee, community meetings, thematic workshops, experts workshops • Currently, the implementation of this Plan is being evaluated and consultations starting for New Plan

    10. Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park Management Plan 2005 - 2010 Threats to the BJCMNP and their Sources Threats:- – Deforestation, Forest Degradation and Wildlife Destruction Sources:- • Conversion of forest to agriculture • Alien invasive species • Logging • Non-timber products harvesting • Hunting • Informal settlements • Water-course modification From Site Conservation Planning 2000, 2001, 2004

    11. Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park Management Plan 2005 - 2010 • Insufficient Environmental Education • Limited Environmentally Sustainable Income-Generating Activities • Insufficient Enforcement • Insufficient “Conservation-on-the-Ground” • Conflicting Policies between Government Agencies and Insufficient Support of Conservation Initiatives • Unclear Boundaries • Limited Resources and Inadequate Management • Climate Change Root Causes

    12. Zonation

    13. Zonation

    14. Conservation Programme Goal:To maintain and enhance the remaining area of closed broadleaf forest and component species of plants and animals that exist in the BJCMNP. Objectives:- • Protect threatened biodiversity especially conservation targets:- forest on limestone & shale, freshwater ecosystems, forest birds, Jamaican coney, yellow snake, giant swallowtail butterfly, epiphytes • Rehabilitate at least 200 acres (80ha) • Create & maintain forest buffers along headwater streams • Promote research that benefits Park management

    15. Achievements – 5 Years later (2005 – 2009) • A total of 45.04 Hectares (112.6 acres) was rehabilitated by JCDT: • 13.77 Hectares (34.43 acres) controlled of invasive species. • 31.8 Hectares (79.5 acres) reforested with native, non-lumber species . • Thus through direct intervention from JCDT over 50% of the objective has been achieved. • The amount reforested by the Forestry Department working with the Lions Club of Mona is about 35 Ha.

    16. Achievements – 5 Years later (2005 – 2009) • Nurseries at Holywell and Hagley Gap - over 18,000 native seedlings have been propagated – used mainly for forest rehabilitation projects. • Species now regularly produced are:- • Dovewood (Alchornea latifolia) • Milkwood (Sapium harrisii) • Soapwood (Clethra occidentalis) • Blue Mountain Yacca (Podocarpus urbanii) • Blue Mahoe (Hibiscus elatus) • West Indian Cedar (Cedrela odorata). • Other species including threatened endemics are now being experimented with.

    17. Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Goal:To track and record both the threats and changes to ecosystem health, to assess achievement of the Park’s over-arching goal Objectives:- • Threats monitoring • Photo-monitoring • Observations on patrol • Outcomes monitoring • Forest area • Freshwater biological monitoring • Bird monitoring • populations of key, threatened species – the giant swallowtail butterfly, the Jamaican coney and the yellow boa.

    18. STREAM QUALITY MONITORING

    19. Achievements – 5 Years later (2005 – 2009) • Two new Threats monitoring programmes developed and being implemented: - • Under the Ranger-based monitoring: data is collected on each patrol and entered in the Park’s GIS. • Under the Permanent location photo-monitoring: 12 monitoring points were established around the Park and monitored annually • Bird Monitoring Programme continues and completed 5yr cycle • Freshwater Monitoring Programme continues and completed 5yr cycle • Some Forest Area Monitoring conducted

    20. Enforcement & Compliance Programme Goal:To stop encroachment of the park boundary and destruction of the forest and wildlife within Objectives:- • Increase level of presence of enforcement officers • Increase level of detection & resolution of breaches • Resolve resource use conflicts on a case by case basis • Address boundary issues • Address fire management issues • Disaster/Emergency Management

    21. Enforcement & Compliance Programme Goal:To stop encroachment of the park boundary and destruction of the forest and wildlife within Achievements:- • Ranger Corps: 3 at beginning of 2004 to current 7 (incl. Chief of Corps) • Patrols: 3/mth in 2004 to 14.6/mth in 2008 • Introduced Ranger-based threats & impacts monitoring using GIS and digital photography • Resolution of breaches through increased:- • Communication with community members • Verbal & written warnings • Liaison & reporting to NEPA & FD • Mapping farms to monitor for encroachment • Special, specific, detailed reports to agencies

    22. Education & Public Involvement Programme Goal: To raise support and improve natural resource management, particularly in buffer zone communities, leading to ecosystem conservation and poverty alleviation Objectives:- • Facilitate capacity building (including education and training) of buffer zone communities vis a vis sustainable livelihoods and resource management • Increase public awareness, knowledge and understanding about the Park, to increase Park support – Communications & Interpretation • Increase public awareness, knowledge and understanding about the Park in students

    23. Education & Public Involvement Programme Goal: To raise support and improve natural resource management, particularly in buffer zone communities, leading to ecosystem conservation and poverty alleviation Achievements:- Working with 4 targeted buffer zone communities to plan & implement projects e.g. reforestation, community tourism, sustainable agriculture.

    24. Education & Public Involvement Programme Goal: To raise support and improve natural resource management, particularly in buffer zone communities, leading to ecosystem conservation and poverty alleviation Achievements:- Youth PATH - Skills training and team building for youth (about 60 over the 4 yrs) from 3 targeted buffer zone communities:- flora & fauna, tourism certification, First Aid/CPR, Life Skills, Small Business Development etc.

    25. Education & Public Involvement Programme Goal: To raise support and improve natural resource management, particularly in buffer zone communities, leading to ecosystem conservation and poverty alleviation Achievements:- Visited 37 local schools with A/V presentation on BJCMNP (2009)

    26. Recreation and Tourism Programme Goal:To provide recreational opportunities for local and international visitors using ecotourism principles to generate income and support for the park Objectives:- • Provide recreational and educational opportunities • Generate income for park management by increasing revenue from park’s recreation areas • Facilitate benefits to local communities • Ensure these activities don’t threaten park

    27. Recreation and Tourism Programme Goal:To provide recreational opportunities for local and international visitors using ecotourism principles to generate income and support for the park Achievements:- • Holywell Ecotourism Development & Management Plan • Increased income from park’s recreation areas • Working with local communities through skills training and technical assistance to develop and implement sustainable community tourism products • Blue Mountains Sustainable Tourism Plan • Annual Misty Bliss celebrations

    28. Governance & Administration Programme Goal:To ensure efficient and effective implementation of the Park’s programmes Objectives:- • Involve stakeholders e.g. Co-management Committee, Liaising with CBOs • Coordinate and effectively manage operations • Ensure adaptive management • Raise funds – need ideally US$450,000/yr for recurrent expenditure and US$350,000 for capital and project expenditure