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Disease - a harmful change in the state of health of your body or mind. Non-communicable diseases - are diseases that are NOT transmitted by pathogens Diseases can be caused by infections, lack of nutrients, birth, or lifestyle behaviors Examples of Non-Communicable Diseases:
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Disease- a harmful change in the state of health of your body or mind. • Non-communicable diseases- are diseases that are NOT transmitted by pathogens • Diseases can be caused by infections, lack of nutrients, birth, or lifestyle behaviors Examples of Non-Communicable Diseases: • Chronic disease- diseases that are present either continuously or off and on over a long time • Degenerative disease- disease that causes breakdown in body cells, tissues, and organs as they progress
Sign- fever • Symptom- sore throat • Some diseases have several signs and symptoms. • Different diseases may produce the same signs and symptoms. • It is possible to have a disease and not have symptoms
Scurvy is an ancient disease, reported as far back as 1550 B.C. It is a non-communicable disease caused by a Vitamin C deficiency. It was a major problem on long sea voyages in 1600s and 1700s when sailors did not eat fruits and vegetables. One many voyages nearly 2/3 of the crew would die. James Lind, 1747 discovered that adding lemon juices to sailors’ rations would help prevent scurvy. An estimated one million men died between 1600-1800. Scurvy is rare in developed countries.
Many non-communicable diseases cannot be prevented • Some are inherited from parents • Some are present at birth, but are not inherited • Risk factors- characteristic or behavior that raises a person’s chances of getting a non-communicable disease Risk Factors with No Control Over: • Age • Gender • Race Risk Factors with Control Over: • Amount of food • Type of food • Diet • Smoking (risky behavior)- something that increases chance of getting a non-communicable disease
Chemical waste • Certain construction materials • Household chemicals • Secondhand smoke • Improper waste disposal • Radon • Carbon monoxide
Scientists study to find cures • Most diseases caused by injury are preventable • Diet and exercise can help prevention of some non-communicable diseases • Not smoking or drinking can prevent some non-communicable diseases
Most non-communicable diseases cannot be cured • They can be treated • Treatment is given to slow progress or stop the disease
News reporter and doctor, representing the risk factors and treatment options for s non-communicable disease
A disease caused by defective genes inherited by a child from one or both parents • Caused by changes in the structure of genes • Genes determine the activities of cells and a person’s physical characteristics • Genes are passed from parent to child • A gene change may cause a hereditary change
Sickle Cell- caused by change to one gene • Colon cancer- changes in more than one gene • Breast cancer- changes in more than one gene • Down syndrome- born with part or all of an extra 21 chromosome
Doctors can test for a number of hereditary diseases • This helps to reduce problems that might cause disease • Example: newborns tested at birth (Tested for PKU- it can cause mental retardation. If it is caught at birth, then newborns are put on a low-protein diet and if started right away and carried throughout life, it will be prevented). • Down syndrome- effects the ability to learn • Cystic Fibrosis- affects trouble breathing • People with hereditary diseases may experience medical problems • These problems can be reduced if caught early
Process by which the body converts the energy in food into energy the body can use. • Takes places after digestion • Metabolic Diseases: • PKU- happens before birth • Diabetes- happens after birth Causes: • Hereditary • Nutrition and diet • Some other causes Nutrition is extremely important- low Vitamin D may cause rickets (deformed bones), low Vitamin A (blindness) too much Vitamin A ( hair loss or liver disease)
A disease that prevents the body from converting food into energy • The body has to breakdown food into glucose • To transport glucose cells, the body needs insulin- a hormone produced by the pancreas • Types of Diabetes • Type 1 Diabetes- condition in which the immune system attacks insulin-producing cells in the pancreas • Type 2 Diabetes- condition in which the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces • It is more likely to occur in people 40 and over who are obese in physically inactive • It is becoming more common in children and teens
Diagnosing Diabetes • Frequent urination • Excessive thirst • Unexplained weight loss • Extreme hunger • Sudden vision changes • Tingling or numbness in hands or feet • Feeling tired much of the time • Very dry skin • Sores that are slow to heal • More infections that usual • It is possible to have no symptoms for years
There is no known prevention for Type 1 diabetes • Treatment for Type 1 involves daily injections • Healthy weight and physical activity reduce the chance of developing Type 2 diabetes • Type 2 involves oral medication or dietary changes
Important to have a normal life- nutritious diet • Proper balance of carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins, and minerals • Poor nutrition can lead to malnutrition • Eating the right amount of food is just as important as eating the right food ( need to try and get 2,000-2,500 calories a day) • If you take in more energy than you use, your body stores it as fat • Too much fat stored can lead to obesity • Obesity is linked to heart disease, high blood pressure, some types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, and a variety of other diseases • Minimize computer and TV time • Don’t eat snacks while watching TV • Exercise (20-30 minutes in vigorous exercise a day)
An overreaction of the immune system to something in the environment that is harmless to most people • Our body will react to a foreign substance by trying to weaken or eliminate the substance • Part of the process is releasing antibodies, which fight foreign substances in the body • Some people develop allergies- abnormal immune reaction to an ordinarily harmless substance • Allergens cause allergic reactions • Between 40-50 million people are affected with allergies • Most common forms- food, plants, pollen, medications, mold, animals with fur or feather, insect stings, synthetic materials, poison ivy • Some may affect a small portion of the body (poison ivy) or the entire body (food reactions)
Stage One: Contact is Made • Stage Two: Attack is Launched • Stage Three: Symptoms Appear
The body responds to allergens by releasing histamines- chemicals in the body that cause symptoms • Common symptoms: • Watery eyes • Sneezing • Skin rash • Hives- small raised bumps on the skin that are very itchy
Diagnosing is fairly easy- hives after eating peanuts, sneezing beside a cat, and many more • There is no cure for allergies, just ways to cope with them • Most basic way is to avoid the allergen • Take antihistamines- medicines to help control the effect triggered by histamines- when you cannot avoid them • Take allergy shots- these help build immunities to the body, process usually takes five years
A chronic serious condition that causes air passages in the respiratory system to become blocked or narrowed • More than 17 million people in the United States has asthma • Some outgrow it at puberty, while others develop at adulthood • Bronchial tubes are sensitive to certain substances in asthma patients • Asthma triggers- smoke, pollution, foods, or medicines • Cold air, strenuous activity, strong emotions, or stress can trigger attacks too • Asthma triggers vary from person to person
There is no cure for asthma • Those with asthma learn how to manage it and live healthy lives • Coping with asthma means avoiding triggers when possible • There are medicines used to treat it • Some medicines block swelling the bronchial tubes and decrease to reduce the amount mucus being produced • Bronchodilators- are medicines used to relax the muscles that have tightened around the airways
Autoimmune diseases- are diseases where a person’s immune system attacks certain cells, tissues, and organs of the body • Most allergies, asthma and autoimmune diseases cannot be prevented • Genetics play a role • There are treatments-specific to each one
Name one way that allergies, asthma, and autoimmune diseases are similar and one way they are different.
A disease in which cells grow uncontrollably and invade and destroy healthy tissues • Cells die and are replaced in the body daily • Sometimes cells DNA instructions get changed- the size, shape, and behavior can cause the cell to be abnormal • As cells grow, they cause tumors- mass of abnormal cells • Tumors may be malignant or benign • Malignant- are cancerous and can be life threatening • They can spread through the body, invade other organs and tissues (metastasis) , and tend to get worse • Benign- are not cancerous and not usually life threatening • They do not spread to other organs or tissues
Cancer can affect any tissue or organ in the body • Common cancers in women • Breast • Ovarian • Lung • Common cancers in men • Prostate • Colon • Lung • Common cancer in children • Leukemia • Skin cancer is one of the most common types • Basal cell carcinoma( BCC) is the most common type • Melanoma is the most serious type
Assessing Your Health: Self-examination: • Asymmetry- look for moles or markings that are not symmetrical • Border irregularity- look for moles or markings with edges that are crooked or wavy • Color- look for markings or moles that vary in color from one area to another • Diameter- look for moles or markings that are larger than a pencil eraser • 20-40 years in age have a cancer check-up every 3 years • 40 and over need one yearly
Heredity • Lifestyle behaviors • Exposure to carcinogens- substances that cause cancer • Look for warning signs (pg. 486)
When a warning sign is described to a doctor they will call for a biopsy • A biopsy is a sample of tissue removed to see whether cancer cells are present • If they are detected then the doctor will order tests to determine size and location • Types of Treatment • Surgery-removing cancer cells from the body • Chemotherapy- chemicals used to destroy cancer cells • Radiation-High-radioactive substances help destroy or shrink cancer cells • Immunotherapy- used in combination with another treatment, it stimulates the body’s immune system to fight infection • Hormone therapy –cancer is treated with hormones or medicines that interfere with production of hormones • When cancer signs and symptoms disappear the patient is in remission • Cancer in remission is not necessarily cured • The return of cancer after remission is-recurrence
Eat nutritious foods • Be physically active • Limit sun exposure • Avoid tobacco and alcohol
Create a concept map using the following terms: cancer, tumor, malignant, benign, carcinogens, biopsy, chemotherapy, radiation.
Any condition that weakens the heart or blood vessels or interferes with the functions they perform • More adults in the U.S. die from heart disease than anything else • Depends on age, lifestyle behaviors, and hereditary • Arteriosclerosis- is when arteries become hardened and become more rigid • It reduces the amount of blood flow through arteries • Atherosclerosis - is a form of arteriosclerosis, where fatty substances in the blood build up on walls of the arteries • Buildup in coronary arteries can lead to heart attacks • Build up in blood vessels can lead to stroke • Blood pressure is the force of blood on the inside walls of arteries • High blood pressure is when your blood pressure is consistently higher than normal for your age
The top number is the pressure when the heart beats • The bottom number is the pressure when the heart rests • Blood pressure 140/90 is normal • Heart attack- is a condition where blood flow to a part of the heart is greatly reduced or blocked ( if it is more than a few minutes then cells can be damaged and die) • Signs of heart attack • Pressure, fullness, squeezing, or pain in the chest • Pain in the shoulders, neck, or arms • Chest discomfort with lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, nausea, or shortness of breath • Stroke- conditions where a blood vessel bringing oxygen to the brain bursts or is blocked • Signs of stroke • Sudden numbness or weakness ( on one side of body) • Sudden confusion or difficulty with speech or understanding • Sudden difficulty seeing • Sudden dizziness, or loss of balance and coordination
Medication • Angioplasty-putting a stint when plaque builds up in artery walls • Bypass surgery- taking a healthy vein from leg or chest to put a detour around a blocked vein • Heart valve surgery- replacing a faulty valve with an artificial one • Pacemaker- a small device that sends steady electrical impulses to the heart to make it beat regularly
Manage stress • Manage weight • Manage physical activity • Manage poor eating habits • Manage tobacco and alcohol use ***Though it is not detected until adulthood, it can develop in childhood. Start managing your health now
People with arthritis have more than 100 conditions marked by pain and swelling in body joints • It can affect people of any age • Two most common types: rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
A chronic disease caused by pain, inflammation, swelling, and stiffness of joints • Most serious of the most common forms • Joints become deformed and often no longer function normally • Joints affected: hands, feet, elbows, shoulders, neck, knees, hips, and ankles • It is usually symmetrical in the body: both hands will hurt • The cause is unknown • Treatment • No known treatment • Medicines to relieve pain, reduce swelling, and keep joints functioning as normal as possible • Exercise, rest, joint protection, and physical therapy are recommended
Characterized by the breakdown of cartilage in joints • Areas affected: hands, knees, and hips • Most affected are over the age of 45 • Treatment • Medication • Hot or cold therapy • Joint protection • Weight reduction on joint