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16 th , 17 th , 18 th Century Social History. By the end of today you should be able to answer. What changes occurred in marriage and the family in the course of the 18 th century What was life like for children and how did attitudes toward children evolve

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by the end of today you should be able to answer
By the end of today you should be able to answer
  • What changes occurred in marriage and the family in the course of the 18th century
  • What was life like for children and how did attitudes toward children evolve
  • What did people eat and how did changes in diet and medical care affect people.
marriage and the family
Marriage and the Family
  • Family Structure:
    • Nuclear
  • Marriage age:
    • Late 20s (economics)
      • Community regulation
  • Premarital Sex
    • Common
      • But low illegitimacy rates (1700-1750)
        • Community controls and pressure
    • Birth Control
      • Coitus Interruptus
      • “mechanical” means (condoms)
  • The Illegitimacy Explosion (1750-1850)
    • Cottage Industry
    • Urbanization
    • Marry for love
family economy
Family Economy
  • Father head of the household
        • Death often brought disaster
        • Quick remarriage
          • Rise of “step” children
  • Everyone in the household worked
        • Women maintained the household
        • For women, marriage was an economic necessity
women during 18 th century
Women during 18th century
  • Marriage was a necessity
    • Survival would be very difficult without it
    • There was little value for a women at home
        • Migration would be made bc of need for dowry
            • Would take as many as 10 years to accumulate
                • What is the effect in terms of marriage?
  • Many served as wet-nurses
    • The use of wet nurses was a necessity for both the mother and the wet nurse
children and education
Children and Education
  • More formal education

(post-1750)

    • Led by Prussia
  • Infanticide
    • Birth not always welcome
    • “Overlaying”
  • Foundling Homes
    • 1/3 of all babies in Paris by 1750
    • 50-90% mortality rate
  • Attitude towards children
    • Pre-1750: indifference, discipline
      • “Spare the rod, spoil the child”
    • Post-1750: more caring and nurturing
      • Rousseau, Emile
food and medicine
Food and Medicine
  • Diet
    • BREAD
    • The Poor
      • Vegetables and bread
      • The Potato
    • Upper Class
      • Meat
      • No vegetables
    • Northern Europe ate better than Southern
  • Medicine
    • Purging and bleeding
    • No sanitation
  • Hospitals and Institutions
  • Smallpox
    • Lady Montague
    • Edward Jenner
religion and popular culture
Religion and Popular Culture
  • Religious Revival
    • Pietism
      • Newfound religious vigor
      • Very evangelical
      • Wesley and Methodism
      • Catholic Piety
        • Festivals
  • Carnival
    • Outlet for social frustration
  • Entertainment
    • Blood sports
witchcraft
Witchcraft
  • The MalleusMaleficarum (1486)
the european witch craze 1500 1650
The European Witch Craze (1500-1650)
  • Suspects
    • Unmarried women
      • Widows
      • midwives
  • Reasons
    • High religious anxiety / religious wars
    • Increased local control
    • Influence of magic
  • Decline
    • Rise of the Enlightenment
    • End of religious wars
why the craze
Why the Craze?
  • Attempts to maintain old traditions and culture, even among the learned
  • “Cunning folk” and the use of magic
  • Influence of the clergy
        • Encouragement to fear demons
  • Fueled by misogyny
        • Women were challenging the old order, men used this as a way to push back