Body Systems and Common Diseases and Conditions Nurse Aide I Course http://www.ncdhhs.gov/dhsr/hcpr/curriculum/ppt/
Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems This unit reviews the structure and function of the body and its systems. It presents common disorders of each system and lists the normal changes that occur with the aging process. It includes signs and symptoms which should be reported.
Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems(continued) A basic knowledge of normal anatomy and physiology will help the nurse aide to understand the signs and symptoms of disease, the reasons for the care given, and the purposes of procedures that are carried out for the resident’s comfort, healing and recovery. In-depth information is not provided.
Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems(continued) It is intended that upon completion of the unit, the student will have rudimentary knowledge of the body systems sufficient to enhance resident care.
Objectives *Discuss the makeup of the male and female body. *Describe the relationship between cells, tissues, organs, and systems of the body.
Body SystemsCells • Building blocks of body • Microscopic in size • Cells combine to form tissue
Body Systems Tissues • Cells organized into tissue to carry on particular activities (connect, support, absorb, secrete, protect, direct, coordinate, allow movement) • Groups of tissues form organs
Objective *List the organs of the body.
Body SystemsOrgans • Made up of several types of tissues • Carry on special functions • Some organs in pairs - kidneys and lungs • Some organs single – heart, brain, liver, stomach, intestines, bladder • Organs combine to form systems
Objective *Identify the systems of the body.
Systems A system is a group of organs that work together. Body Systems • Skeletal • Muscular • Circulatory • Respiratory • Digestive • Urinary • Endocrine • Nervous • Reproductive • Integumentary • Sensory
Body Systems Systems combine to form the human body.
The Skeletal System
Objective *Identify functions of the skeletal system.
Comprises the bony framework of the body Has 206 bones The Skeletal System
FUNCTIONS: Support Protect Movement Mineral storage Blood cell production The Skeletal System(continued)
JOINTS - point where bones meet: Immovable – cranium Slightly movable - vertebral discs Freely movable - shoulder, knee, wrist The Skeletal System(continued)
The Skeletal System(continued) COMPOSITION OF JOINTS: • Ligament - connects bone to bone • Tendon - connects muscle to bone
The Skeletal System(continued) COMPOSITION OF JOINTS: • Bursa - fluid filled sac that allows bones to move easily over others • Cartilage – connective tissue that cushions the joint at end of bones and between bones
Objective *Discuss common disorders of the skeletal system.
Common Disorders of Skeletal System • Osteoporosis - porous bone that breaks easily
Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued) • Fracture - break in bone • simple - bone broken, skin intact • compound - bone broken, penetrates skin • comminuted - bone broken, fragments in tissue • greenstick - incomplete break
Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued) • Arthritis - inflammation of the joints • osteoarthritis due to stress on joints • usually affects weight bearing joints: knees, hips, vertebrae and fingers • aching, stiffness, limited motion
rheumatoid arthritis - systemic disease causes inflammation, deformity and crippling joints painful, stiff, swollen, red and warm Arthritis - inflammation of the joints Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued)
Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued) • Amputation – removal of all or part of limb • Sprain - stretched or torn ligaments or tendons • Bursitis - inflammation of bursa causing pain on movement
Objective *Discuss changes that take place in the skeletal system due to aging.
Skeletal System Changes Due To Aging • Bones more porous or brittle • Joints less flexible • Postural changes • Awkward walking patterns • Slowed recovery from position changes and sudden movements
Objective *List observations/situations relating to skeletal system.
Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System • Slow and unsteady body movement • Difficulty holding objects • Complaint of pain in joints • Swelling, redness and warmth in joints • Inability to move joints
Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System(continued) • Complaint of pain with movement • Complaint of neck or head pain • Resident who has fallen (stay with resident, call for help, do not move resident or allow resident to move)
Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System(continued) • Resident with cast on arm or leg • complaint of pain in limb • swelling of fingers or toes • pale skin of fingers or toes • cyanosis and coolness of fingers or toes
Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System(continued) • Resident with cast on arm or leg • odor or drainage from cast • inability to move toes or fingers • complaint of numbness of fingers or toes • drainage from cast
The Muscular System
Objective *Identify functions of muscles.
Function of Muscles • Produce movement • Maintain posture • Stabilize joints • Generate heat
Muscles • Bones require muscles for locomotion • Muscles move bone by contracting (shortening)
The Muscular System • Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement – they contract or shorten and are the machine of the body • Three basic muscle types are found in the body • Smooth muscle • Cardiac muscle • Skeletal muscle
There are three types of Muscle: Smooth Muscle • Located in the digestive and reproductive system • Under Involuntary control Cardiac Muscle • Found in the wall of the heart • under Involuntary control Skeletal Muscle • Attached to bone • Provide force for moving and stabilizing the body • Under Voluntary control
Ligaments • Bands of stretchy connective tissue which give movable joints more stability • Muscles attach to bone by tendons (connective tissue) • Each muscle is attached to two bones. The origin is the stationary portion. The insertion is the movable portion • When a muscle contracts it moves the bone at the insertion point
Anatomy of the Muscular System • Origin Muscle attachment that remains fixed • Insertion Muscle attachment that moves • Action What joint movement a muscle produces i.e. flexion, extension, abduction, etc.
For muscles to create a movement, they can only pull, not push • Muscles in the body rarely work alone, & are usually arranged in groups surrounding a joint • A muscle that contracts to create the desired action is known as an agonistor prime mover • A muscle that helps the agonist is a synergist • A muscle that opposes the action of the agonist, therefore undoing the desired action is an antagonist
Antagonistic Muscles • A pair of muscles which work against each other to make a joint move • The muscle that contracts to bend the joint is the flexor, and the muscle that contracts to straighten the joint is the extensor
Did you know… • If you’re double jointed it means that you have extra stretchy ligaments which allows your joints more flexibility
Movement • Muscles move bones. Muscles are attached to the bone by tendons. • When the muscle contracts, it becomes shorter and pulls the tendon which pulls the bone. When the muscle relaxes, the pulling stops. • Muscles can only PULL, so they work in pairs. For example, the bicep contracts to pull the lower arm up. When the tricep contracts, your arm straightens.
Sliding Filament Theory – Muscular Contraction Neuron: Step 1 • Cell of nervous system • Dendrites send electrical signal to muscle making muscle contract • Axon – long fibre that carries the message to the Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)
Sliding Filament Theory – Muscular Contraction Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ): Step 2 - Neurotransmitter acetylcholine is release at the NMJ. It diffuses through the muscular membrane, attaches to receptors and initiates muscular contraction
Sliding Filament Theory – Muscular Contraction Muscle: Step 3 - During muscular contraction muscle does not change attachment points, instead filaments (actin and myosin) slide over each other – This is known as the ELECTROMUSCULAR STIMULUS
Injuries: Sprains, Strains & Muscle Pulls • A sprain is an injury to a ligament • A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon • A pulled muscle is a tear in the muscle fibers. • A pulled muscle can also be called a strained muscle