Writing a Research Proposal Wei SH Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science and Technology National Yang Ming University
Working plan for development a research proposal • Research plan • Plan administration support
THE RESEARCH PLAN A. Title B. Abstract C. Statement of the research problem 1. rational and justification for the study 2. Significance of the study D Statement of the purpose of the study 1. Specific aims or objectives 2. Research hypothesis or guiding questions E. Background of the study 1. Topics for the review of literature related to: a. Theory and supportive rationale b. Related studies c. Methods 2. Previous work by the investigator that supports the project F. Method 1. Subjects: characteristics, sampling method, plan for recruitment 2. Materials: Instrumentation, plan to establish reliability and validity 3. Procedures: a. Study design b. Details of test and treatment administration c. Data collection methods d. Timetable and organization chart 4. Data management and analysis G. Literature cited H. Documentation of informed consent
PLAN ADIMINSTRATION SUPPORT • Budget • personal • equipment • supplies • Resources and environment • Personnel: • qualifications, • time commitment, • job description, • consultants
Title • It must be concise and informative. • First impression of what the reviewers should expect to read in the subsequent pages. • Independent and dependent variables • Examples • Bronchopulmonary dysplesia • Cardiovascular problems in bronchopulmonary dysplesia • Cardiovascular effects of rehabilitation intervention in infants with • bronchopulmonary dysplesia
Abstract • limited to one page. • Highlight the purpose and importance of the proposed project. • Brief description of the method. • The method includes subjects, procedures and methods for data analysis. • Duration of the study • Overall cost • Positive impression: convey specifically what is done and why the study is important.
Statement of the problem • Convey a clear sense of the importance of the problem in term of applicability of potential findings. • Lead reader logically toward definition of the specific delimited topics. • Present rationale for specific questions being addressed. • No single project can be expected to solve a problem in its entirety.
Purpose, hypothesis and specific aims • State precisely what the project is expected to accomplish • The purpose of the study should follow clearly from the justification present earlier. • Hypotheses • Experimental or correlatively • Hypotheses are stated in positive terms; they are reflected the expectation of outcome. • Null hypotheses that serve a statistical function do not belong in text. • Specific aims • They derived from the research hypothesis or descriptive questions.
Background of the study • Background information should include the theoretical rationale, pertinent facts, observation, or claims that have lead the investigator to propose research question.
Background of the study • The information is derived from the literature review and from previous or related work done by the investigator.
Background of the study • Literature review is to integrate published materials. • It is not simply a series of abstract of paper on the topics. • The author must convey an integration of content that supports the need, importance, and rationale for the proposed study.
Background of the study Authors must continually ask: • “Is this reference or point of information directly related to this study?”
Background of the study • “Does it contribute to the rationale or clarify the basic assumptions that underline the research question?”
Background of the study • Authors should read more than will be or should be included in written proposal.
Background: literature reviews The first element of the review may include • relevant epidemiological factors, demographics, • the impact of the research issue, and • potential impact on the patients.
Background: literature reviews The major portion of the review may focus on prior research and address related question, reflecting current knowledge or lack or knowledge.
Background of the study The final element of the review may include a summary of the fact, problems, or controversies found in the literature and relevant perspectives of the research that lead directly back to the specific need and stated purpose of the proposed study.
Methods • It may be the most important part of the proposal. • It should be both concise and clear. • Answer the research question. • Four subsections; subjects, materials, procedures and data analysis
Subjects • Inclusive and exclusive criteria • How many • From where subject will be recruited • How they are selected. • The method by which they will be assigned to groups for the study • Power analysis
Materials • Refers to the equipment, instrument, measuring tool • Brand name, model, company • Reliability and validity
Procedure • From beginning to end of the investigation in chronological sequence • Operation definitions should be provided. • Strategies for controlling extraneous variables
Data analysis • Recording • Storing • Data reduction • Statistical analysis
Documentation of inform consent A copy of the informed consent form must accompany the proposal when subject will be directly involved in the study.
Plan for administrative support • Justification for each budget item • Personnel budget • Equipment budget • Others • Resources and environment • Existing resources for carrying out the proposed project
Plan for administrative support Personnel: • qualifications, • time commitment, • job description, • consultants
Presentation of the proposal Style • The research proposal is forward-looking document. • The research thinking begins with the present, acknowledge and draws from the past, but primarily leads to the future.
Presentation of the proposal Style • The statement of the problem is written in the present tense, • The background is written in the past tense • The method is written in future tense.
Presentation of the proposal Style • The tone and mood of the document should be positive, persuasive, and scholarly • The researcher must convince reviewers that proposed research is important, that is need to conduct the proposed research, the research team has the knowledge and ability to accomplish the study objectives. • “Perhaps the result will contribute” • “We hope to demonstrate”
Presentation of the proposal Printing • Neat • Readable • Each copy should be clear and high contrast.