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R K Shivpuri University of Petroleum & Energy Studies 5 th Nuclear Energy Conclave “Nuclear Energy- Inspiration for Growth and Energy Security” 6 th September 2013, Habitat Centre, New Delhi. Nuclear Energy and Sustainable Development. PLAN OF THE TALK. INTRODUCTION

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nuclear energy and sustainable development

R K Shivpuri

University of Petroleum & Energy Studies

5th Nuclear Energy Conclave

“Nuclear Energy- Inspiration for Growth and Energy Security”

6thSeptember 2013,

Habitat Centre, New Delhi

Nuclear Energy and Sustainable Development

plan of the talk




U. S. A.


Human Development Index






Source of the Data:

World Bank, 1999


Human Development Report, 2001





Per Capita Electricity Consumption (kWh/year)


“There is no power as costly as no-power”

– HomiBhabha



No Development

Without access to a minimum of Energy




Area: 3.28 Million Sq Km

Population: 1.27 Billion

5th largest producer of electricity in the world with

Total Installed Capacity of about 167,775 MW

Thermal: 63.5%

Hydro: 24.8%

Nuclear: 2.78%

Others: 8.92%

Annual Per Capita Electricity Consumption is a meagre 700 kWh

energy challenges
Energy challenges
  • Increase in demand
  • Population increase: There will be 3 billion more people on earth by 2050, many of them in India.
  • The economic growth in developing countries like India, China, Brazil etc apart from other countries which are aspiring at better living conditions.
  • Growth in developed countries  in spite of improvements in energy efficiency, widespread use of computers, air-conditioning, etc.... are pushing demand.
strategies for long term energy security

Required coal import:

0.7 billion tonne* in 2050

The deficit is practically wiped out in 2050

Required coal import:

1.6 billion tonne* in 2050

Deficit 7 GWe

Deficit 412 GWe

Deficit 178 GWe

FBR using spent fuel from LWR

Nuclear (Domestic 3-stage programme)

LWR (Imported)


Coal domestic



Strategies for long-term energy security

No imported reactor/fuel

LWR import: 40 GWe Period: 2012-2020

LWR import: 40 GWe Period: 2022-2030

Deficit to be filled by fossil fuel / LWR imports

Projected requirement*

*Ref: “A Strategy for Growth of Electrical Energy in India”, document 10, August 2004, DAE

* - Assuming 4200 kcal/kg


Worldwide distribution of Nuclear Power plants- 441.

The total number of reactors in the world is 441at present which produce 393 gigawattsof electricity and the number of reactors under construction are 68.

Renaissance of nuclear power.


Worldwide distribution of

Nuclear Power plants

  • In 2010, nuclear power plants supplied 13 percent of the world’s electricity.
  • 2011- 30 countries around the world operated 441 nuclear reactors, with a gross installed capacity of 393 gigawatts.
  • 83 percent of installed capacity was in OECD countries. Another 17 percent have announced their intention to build, where 55 to 67 new reactors are being built.
  • China alone accounts 63 percent of the construction started in 2010, followed by Russia, with 13 percent.
  • Fukushima - Many governments are now reassessing their plans for the use of nuclear power.

The Problem –

Need of Skilled Manpower

  • Success of any Nuclear Power project depends on availability of qualified manpower, which can ensure the success of various stages of a nuclear power project such as planning, construction, operation, safety and power production.
  • Safety of nuclear plants – greatest concern(three mile island and Chernobyl are sad reminders and last year Fukushima!); skilled and qualified manpower can help in preventing accidents or help in proper handling if they do occur.

The shortage of skilled and qualified manpower – major limiting factor in development of nuclear technology particularly in developing countries.

need of skilled manpower
Need of Skilled Manpower
  • The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency(NEA) has exploredseven activities related to nuclear generation of electricity: Front-end, Back-end, Plant Operation and Maintenance, Design, Manufacturing and Construction, Regulation, R&D and Education, and 'Others'.
  • Occupations in these major sectors were further classified as: Engineers (nuclear and chemical), Scientists, Managers
  • For all the above, we need qualified manpower. Shortage of skilled manpower is the main problem facing the expansion of Nuclear program all over the Globe.

India is planning to add several more reactors to the presently available 20 reactors. There is a serious shortage of manpower world wide and India is no exception inspite of being over a billion people !






The implementation of a training program requires: Financial support and Organization for strengthening the educational infrastructure.

This Is True For Developed And

Developing Countries.


The Indian scene

  • Dept. of Atomic Energy (DAE) institutes, like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) etc. provides training in Nuclear Power research.
  • Understanding the dire need of the increasing manpower demand, and utilizing the vast potential of human resource at Universities, we need to START courses in Nuclear Science and Technology at Different Institutions.
  • Train many more engineers and technologists each year and thus use the vast human capital of the country in a meaningful way.

The Indian scene

  • In every field the surest way to attract the best students is to be innovative, daring and relevant. Some degree of renewal and of new vision is certainly needed.
  • Keeping this aim in view, Several Universities and Institutes have launched new courses on M. Tech in Nuclear Science and Technology in past five years.
  • The course should be geared to study nuclear power and the radiological applications which have emerged in the last half of 20th century.
nuclear science technology nst course
Nuclear Science & Technology (NST) Course




nuclear science technology nst course1
Nuclear Science & Technology (NST) Course
  • Compared with the more traditional disciplines, the NST should be a cross between an engineer and physicist.
  • The course should be sufficiently focused on the development of practical knowledge and theoretical fundamentals.
  • Nuclear Technology is also concerned with the engineering aspects of the uses of nuclear processes for meeting human needs.
nuclear science technology nst course2
Nuclear Science & Technology (NST) Course
  • There is a need to put the courses started in various institutes under one umbrella to
    • Coordinate them in a better way.
    • Different Institutes can focus on specialized aspects, like Waste Management; Nuclear Plant Design; Operations etc.
    • Enhance the research collaborations
  • Careers in laboratories functioning under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)
  • Nuclear Reactor Operations/ Design Expert in Nuclear Power Plant
  • Nuclear Radiation Safety and Environmental Management
  • Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine
  • Ph.D options in U.S., France, Germany & other European Countries.
issues solutions in nuclear engineering
Issues & Solutions In Nuclear Engineering

The major problems in Nuclear Engineering course in any University / Institute are listed as under.

Huge gap between supply and demand : Enrollments for Nuclear Engineering (NE) programs do not show any sufficient increase while demand from industry and government is expected to increase.

  • The number of new Nuclear Engineering/ Nuclear Technology Depts has increased to four in last five years.
  • The looming manpower crisis needs to be communicated to the Govt; Industry and Universities.
  • Lack of urgency among decision-makers regarding the manpower crisis that is looming.
  • Need for nuclear engineers since new reactor plants are coming up.

Issues & Solutions In Nuclear Engineering

Supply vs. demand : Solution

  • Firstly, we must increase the number of institutions – Universities & National Institutes of Technology (NIT’s) where we should start the nuclear engineering program.
  • Secondly, we must think in terms of actions to address infrastructure needs for the short-term (1 – 5 years) and the long-term (6 – 15 years).

Issues & Solutions In Nuclear Engineering

Image of the discipline : Nuclear engineering is not perceived to be a new emerging area with great opportunities.

  • Nuclear Engineering departments are perceived to focus on nuclear power, even when the students are trained in diverse areas such as Nuclear Plant Design, Nuclear Operations, Nuclear Waste Management etc.
  • Poor public image of the discipline.
  • Perception of insufficient opportunities in the nuclear industry.
  • Compared to other areas such as Business Management, Finance, the “glamour factor” is working against nuclear energy as it is perceived to be a field with a limited future and dim prospects for responsible and high paying jobs.

Issues & Solutions In Nuclear Engineering

Cooperation : There needs to be more cooperative activities among the major constituencies (industry, universities, government) in nuclear engineering and related fields.

  • The manpower requirements and employment opportunities should be better articulated.
  • Need to harness the vast available manpower in the Universities to meet the projected demand in this field.

Issues & Solutions In Nuclear Engineering

Support for research : There is a lack of Govt. and industry support for research in Nuclear Engineering departments and this needs to be addressed.

Need for a Nuclear Reactor : There is a great need to have a nuclear reactor at a central location which will be used for student’s practical training. There is no research reactor in the country in any University/ Institute. A Nuclear reactor for teaching and training is greatly needed.


Issues & Solutions In Nuclear Engineering

Nuclear Engineering Curriculum : Nuclear Engineering departments should attempt to follow a uniform course curriculum.

  • High school textbooks and curricula should include a balanced treatment of nuclear power and radiation.
  • Offering summer internships to college students is also very important for attracting students into a department.
  • By aligning our course curriculum with foreign universities, the students could complete the 1st year of M.Tech over here and then pursue the 2nd year in a foreign university. The students would by implication complete the internship also in a foreign company/ industry. The students would be given a degree from the foreign university and thus earn a dual degree including one from the home institution.

Issues & Solutions In Nuclear Engineering

  • Communication and outreach : The nuclear community must be proactive in an outreach program to inform the public the need for nuclear energy. The prospective students must be informed the wide array of challenging career opportunities in industry, research, and government that are available today and will continue to be available for the foreseeable future.
  • The nuclear community must start early by reaching high school students. Marketing plays an important & key role.
  • High school teacher workshops in nuclear energy must be conducted. Such workshops are important. Involvement of the industry, government and university is most desirable.
  • B.Techstudents are a large and readily available source of qualified students for M.Tech program.

Issues & Solutions In Nuclear Engineering

  • Communication and outreach
  • Nuclear Engineering departments should consider proactive programs to encourage undergraduate students to get involved in real research projects.
  • Nuclear Engineering departments should consider highly visible events such as popular talks by eminent scientists, colloquiums etc. to help improve public perception for nuclear energy.
  • Nuclear Engineering faculty and nuclear professionals should participate in science fairs.
  • The benefits and opportunities presented by nuclear energy need to be articulated and marketed.
  • The security concerns and corresponding solutions should be clearly and transparently communicated.
  • The advantages and viability of the Nuclear Power option over other alternative energy resources should be explained, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
  • There is a need to enhance Public Awareness on various topics, including safety, waste disposal and ability to cope with the accidents.
  • Indian economy is on a fast track and the future is bright enough to make the country a world class economic power.
  • Indian business houses have already shown the potential to become real international players. Whereas this creates a lot of opportunities, it also entails new responsibilities.
  • An important responsibility is to manage energy and environment in a sustainable way. India is large enough to influence the world dynamics, whether it is demand for fossil fuels or environmental issues.
  • Finally, it must be remarked that sustainable development is not a matter of choice but a necessity. Nuclear energy is and will be part of the solution.