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DNA Technology. DNA Extraction. Chemical treatments cause cells and nuclei to burst The DNA is inherently sticky , and can be pulled out of the mixture This is called “spooling” DNA. “Spooled” DNA. Cutting DNA. Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sequences

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dna extraction
DNA Extraction
  • Chemical treatments cause cells and nuclei to burst
  • The DNA is inherently sticky, and can be pulled out of the mixture
  • This is called “spooling” DNA
cutting dna
Cutting DNA
  • Restriction enzymescut DNA at specific sequences
  • Useful to divide DNA into manageable fragments
  • DNA can be separated based on size and charge
  • The phosphate groups are negatively charged
  • DNA is placed in a gel and electricity is run through
  • Negative DNA moves toward the positive end
  • Smaller fragments move farther and faster
steps in dna sequencing
Steps in DNA Sequencing
  • Many copies of a single strand of DNA are placed in a test tube
  • DNA polymerase is added
  • A mixture of nucleotides is added some of which have dye molecules attached
  • Each base (A,T,C,G) has a different color dye
steps in dna sequencing1
Steps in DNA Sequencing
  • By chance, some dyed nucleotides & some regular ones are added
  • Dye molecules are large and stop the chain from growing
dna sequencing
DNA Sequencing
  • The result is DNA fragments of multiple sizes with colors that can be identified
dna sequencing1
DNA Sequencing
  • After the gel separates the resulting fragments by size, we 'read' the sequence from bottom to top.
copying dna
Copying DNA
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Also called PCR
  • A method of making many copies of a piece of DNA
steps in copying dna
Steps in Copying DNA
  • A DNA molecule is placed in a small test tube
  • DNA polymerase that can work at high temps is added
steps in copying dna1
Steps in Copying DNA
  • The DNA is heated to separate the two strands
  • Primers, short pieces of DNA complementary to the ends of the molecule to be copied, are added
copying dna1
Copying DNA
  • The tube is cooled, and DNA polymerase adds new bases to the separated strands

Large amounts of DNA can be made from a small starting sample

  • Clone- a member of a group of genetically identical cells
  • May be produced by asexual reproduction (mitosis)
cloning organisms
Cloning organisms
  • A body cell from one organism and an egg cell from another are fused
  • The resulting cell divides like a normal embryo
human genome project1
Human Genome Project
  • Started in 1990
  • Research effort to sequence all of our DNA (46 chromosomes)
  • Over 3.3 billion nucleotides
  • Mapping every gene location (loci)
  • Conducted by scientists around the world
hgp insights
HGP Insights
  • Only 2% of human genome codes for proteins (exons)
  • Other 98% (introns) are non-coding
  • Only about 20,000 to 25,000 genes (expected 100,000)
  • Proteome – organism’s complete set of proteins
  • About 8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) – places where humans differ by a single nucleotide
  • About ½ of genome comes from transposons (pieces of DNA that move to different locations on chromosomes)
benefits of human genome project
Benefits of Human Genome Project
  • Improvements in medical prevention of disease, gene therapies, diagnosis techniques …
  • Production of useful protein products for use in medicine, agriculture, bioremediation and pharmaceutical industries.
  • Improved bioinformatics – using computers to help in DNA sequencing …
Biotechnology -
  • The use of gene science to create new products from plants and animals


  • Improved food products
  • Medical advances
  • An enhanced environment
herbicide resistant crops
Herbicide Resistant Crops
  • Soybeans: Roundup Ready
  • Corn: Roundup Ready, Liberty Link
  • Cotton: BXN, Roundup Ready
  • Canola: Liberty Link, Roundup Ready

+ CP4 EPSPS = Roundup

gene Ready

biotechnology breakthroughs
Biotechnology Breakthroughs
  • Insulin (1982)
    • First commercial biotech product
    • Reliable, inexpensive source of insulin
  • Rice
    • Enriched with beta-carotene and iron
  • Bananas
    • Containing edible hepatitis vaccine
biotechnology breakthroughs1
Biotechnology Breakthroughs
  • Potatoes with higher solid content
  • Garlic that lowers cholesterol
  • Fruits and vegetables that reduce risks of cancer and heart disease
environmental benefits
Environmental Benefits
  • Reduced pesticide use
  • Lower energy requirements
  • Cleaner water
  • Less soil erosion