SSWH 5 Trace the origins and expansion of the Islamic World between 600-1300 CE
Origins of Islam • People who practice Islam are called Muslims. • Muhammad • Born ~570 in Mecca (city in Arabian Desert) • Visions • Angel Gabriel told him to start spreading the teachings of ONE god • Allah • Muslim word for God
Origins of Islam • Hijrah • Muhammad was unpopular with some powerful people in Mecca. • He and his followers moved to the nearby city of Medina in the year 622. • This year became the beginning of the Muslim calendar.
Origins of Islam • In 630 Muhammad returned to Mecca. • Kaaba • Temple in Mecca that Muhammad turned into the first Muslim Mosque.
Practices of Islam • Quran • Muslim holy book. • Collection of messages to Muhammad from Allah (most via Gabriel). • 5 Pillars • Faith (in Allah as the only God) • Prayer (5x a day facing Mecca) • Fasting (Holy month of Ramadan) • Alms (charity) • Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
Practices of Islam • Sharia • Muslim laws that are based on the Quran. • Often form the basis of political system in Islamic countries. • Caliph • Leader of the Islamic World • Muhammad was the first