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Overview of Tourism Industry Environmental Management Efforts. Harvard E -118 December 1, 2011. Accommodations, Tour Operations, Airports, Aviation, Cruise Lines, Destinations. Ecolodge Critera. - The Nature Conservancy. has minimal impact on the natural and cultural surroundings,

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overview of tourism industry environmental management efforts

Overview of Tourism Industry Environmental Management Efforts

Harvard E -118

December 1, 2011

Accommodations, Tour Operations, Airports, Aviation, Cruise Lines, Destinations

ecolodge critera

- The Nature Conservancy

  • has minimal impact on the natural and cultural surroundings,
  • fits into the physical and cultural environments through attention to design and landscaping as well as building materials,
  • utilizes “green” technologies that provide sustainable means of water acquisition, safe disposal of solid waste and sewage and use of renewable energy sources,
  • involves local communities in the ecolodge development and seeks to bring about economic and educational benefits to communities, and
  • integrates environmental and cultural education into the visitor’s experience.
applicability of ecolodge development to mainstream tourism
Applicability of Ecolodge Development to Mainstream Tourism
  • Requirements to consider the landscape
  • To conserve natural resources and deliver natural products
  • To deliver maximum guest satisfaction via respect for the surroundings
  • To power and present via alternative and local sources
multidisciplinary approach
Multidisciplinary Approach
  • Civil engineering
    • Development of site according to standards
  • Environmental engineering
    • Preserving water quality and ecology
  • Architecture
    • Form, function, respect for nature, art
  • Landscape architecture
    • Respect and preservation for existing landscape
  • Understanding the steps to achieve sustainable outcomes
    • Site Analysis
    • Infrastructure Requirements
    • Vehicle and Pedestrian Circulation
    • Landscape and Gardens
    • Central Laundry & Kitchen/ Restaurants
    • Lighting and water features
    • Water supply and treatment
    • Waste water treatment and reclamation
moving mainstream
Moving Mainstream
  • Recognition of “Non-Financial component of Corporate Success
    • Management of “externalities” that are less and less external
      • Waste, Toxicity, Poverty, Food, Water, Energy, Climate Change
    • Importance of investment community

Wyndham’s Seven Mile Beach Hotel in Tasmania

sustainable competitive advantage
Sustainable competitive advantage
  • Companies with business models that revolve around green practices will have the strongest opportunity of achieving a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

Ernst & Young 2008

  • Hotel Supply Chain Models
    • Owned
    • Managed
    • Leased
    • Franchises
    • Timeshare
    • Rental Exchange
next generation solutions lowering impact of hotel facilities
Next Generation SolutionsLowering Impact of Hotel Facilities
  • Better site planning
  • Conservation of all natural resources
  • Re-use of all resources possible
  • Alternative energy
  • Internal management green teams
  • Greening the supply chain approaches

Sustainability at Lapa Rios http://www.laparios.com/lapgoal.htm

current status for hotel industry in us
Current Status for Hotel Industry in US
  • AH&LA Green Resource Center


  • Level 1
    • Best Practice
    • Ecoeducation
    • Ecosuppliers
  • Level 2
    • Benchmarking
      • Tracking energy and water consumption
      • Utility Rebates
      • Free EPA programs
    • Level 3
      • Certification & State Programs
tour operators travel agents
Tour Operators & Travel Agents
  • Tour Operators & Agents Bear a Unique Responsibility as they are the primary vendors of product worldwide
    • They face difficult challenges as they do not own many of the assets they represent or even license or franchise them
  • Components of Management of Sustainability for Operators & Agents
    • Marketing, PR, Community Relations, Industry Advocacy
    • Products & Services
    • Employee Education
    • Supply Chain Management
    • Asset Management – Physical Assets
    • Benchmarking and Measuring and Reporting
next generation for tour operators
Next generation for Tour Operators
  • Booking tools which integrate “levels of green” into product descriptions
  • Integration of Carbon Data in tour decision making tool kits
  • Investing in destinations
building out into the responsible travel marketplace
Building out into the responsible travel marketplace
  • Working with buyers seeking responsible, sustainable product
  • Developing responsible travel policy and creating programs that favor responsible suppliers
responsible tourism criteria
Responsible tourism criteria
  • Creating a flexible market ready approach
  • Developing criteria that allow entry of small and microenterprises into the marketplace
tour operator sustainability
Tour Operator Sustainability
  • Bringing together the collective experiences of tour operators
  • Working through national trade associations
  • International standard
  • Training
  • Supplier Assessment

Supply Chain Management

tour operator sustainability1
Tour operator sustainability
  • Other impacts of tour components
    • Method of transport
    • Type of excursions and activities
    • Selection of food and beverage
tour operator sustainability2
Tour Operator Sustainability
  • Increasing environmental benefits, e.g.
    • Avoiding sites with excessive pressure
    • Choosing rail or transport with lower CO2 emissions
      • Energy planning which seeks to lower total emissions of company transport
tour operator sustainability3
Tour Operator Sustainability
  • Tour Operator Engagement with Destinations
    • Influencing planning and management
    • Developing investment strategies for local green suppliers
    • Supporting community based approaches
    • Training local staff
    • Developing response to climate change & emergencies
    • Supporting basic human needs
    • Investing in environmental sustainability
    • Supporting local small businesses
airport green management
Airport Green Management

Air Quality Improvement

Water Quality Control

Solid Waste Recycling

Noise Mitigation

Ecological Protection

Energy Efficiency

Renewable Energy

Green Buildings

Carbon Footprint / Climate Action Plan

Climate Adaptation

air transportation
Air Transportation
  • Large agenda to reduce waste, energy, fuel, and carbon dioxide
    • Travel & Tourism causes 5% of all carbon emissions worldwide
      • 2% of this attributable to aviation
      • Growth to 15-20% of carbon emissions from aviation by 2050– see next slide
  • Fuel savings
  • Optimizing aircraft
    • Weight
    • Design
    • Fuels
    • Trim
  • Flight planning systems allowing airlines to operate efficiently
  • Emissions management systems for tracking, reporting, forecasting
next generation approaches to air transport management
Next generation approaches to Air Transport Management
  • Air passenger taxes in Europe
  • Carbon trading in Europe from 2012 forward
    • EU scheme to be implemented which would have global implications
  • Mandatory reductions in emissions in Europe
    • Can purchase European Aviation Allowances
    • Or Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) through UN approved Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs)
next generation approaches
Next generation approaches
  • The Boeing 787 aircraft – targeted for delivery in early 2011 just experienced delays due to a fire during testing
    • Lower NoX
    • GEnX engines
    • Smooth wing technology, and state of the art raked tip
    • Composite Materials – lighter weight aircraft
    • Direct service – fewer take offs and landings
  • Thomson Airways, world’s largest charter airline, will become the Euro launch customer for the B787 with 12 deliveries
  • Thomson Airways is owned by TUI Travel
cruise ship management
Cruise Ship Management

2009 IMO Emission Control Area (ECA)

Covering North America will require

Reduced sulfur and NoX and particulates

  • Energy and Air Emissions
    • Royal Caribbean
      • Reducing Fuel consumption by 2.5%
      • Reducing Green house gas footprint by 33% by 2015
      • Testing scrubbers but all ships still use high sulfur fuels
  • Water & Waste Water
    • Royal Caribbean
      • Oily bilge water protection system fleet wide
      • 15 parts per million permitted, discharge allowed 12 miles out
      • CLIA members working towards 2ppm
  • Defining SoX Emission Control Areas (SECAs)
    • Mediterranean Sea may be designated by EU
cruise ship management1
Cruise Ship Management
  • Waste & Chemical Management
    • Royal Caribbean
      • Recycling 30% of all waste in U.S. ports
      • Realized 44% reduction in hazardous waste in 2008, 25% reduction in 2009
  • CLIA Policy for Members
    • Zero trash discharge at sea
    • Food pulped and discharged “well away from shore”
    • On shore facilities for recycling remain limited in destinations
cruise destination management
Cruise Destination Management
  • Supporting concept of Destination Stewardship, new standards being released by GSTC
  • Work closely with constituents in ports
  • Using funds from corporate foundations to support local conservation efforts
  • Achilles heal of industry
    • Economy of scale so great, industry capable of heavy pressure on local governments and business
    • Local governments and businesses largely “tow the line”
    • Cruise industry can easily move to other sites and often do so if not accommodated
next generation cruise management
Next generation Cruise Management
  • Improved emissions via new scrubbers
  • Reduced waste
    • More investment in local recycling facilities would be recommended
  • Improved management of waste water
  • More research on impacts of food waste thrown off board
  • Increasing success with energy efficiency
    • Management of ships in ports, e.g. engines
  • Need for real investment in local destinations that is substantial
    • Creation of destination stewardship fund and/or destination stewardship outside monitoring bodies to advise and rate cruise lines, that are independent of cruise profit driven approaches
  • Destination stewardship is the frontier of sustainable tourism
    • There are metrics in the form of indicators which are rarely applied and difficult to coordinate
destinations next steps
Destinations Next Steps
  • Creation of urban planning systems for tourism
  • Creation of rural planning systems for tourism
  • Implementation of knowledge transfer of best land-use planning systems
  • Prevention of incremental loss of destination authenticity
    • Problem of lack of understanding of how destinations actually develop
    • Need for knowledge transfer before too many entrenched interests prevent enlightened policies
destination next steps
Destination Next Steps
  • Development of Knowledge Management Systems & Tools for Evaluation of Destination Status
    • Enable Governments to make more informed decisions
    • Enable more informed dialog among stakeholders with government

Ambergris Caye, Belize

20 years ago had 3-4 hotels

destination next steps integrated tracking of key topics
Destination next steps:Integrated Tracking of Key Topics
  • Topic Areas
  • Air Quality
  • Land Use
  • Biodiversity
  • Land Coverage
  • Crime & Safety
  • Local Economy
  • Demographics
  • Municipal Solid Waste
  • Education
  • Real Estate Development
  • Electricity
  • Sewage
  • Fishing
  • Town Council
  • Health
  • Water
  • Hotel Industry
  • Water-Based Tourism
  • Road Infrastructure
next steps destinations
Next steps destinations
  • Economic Capacity to Reinvest in Cultural and Environmental Capital
  • Political capacity to respond to local destination stewardship goals
review and benchmarking
Review and Benchmarking
  • Stakeholder systems are known to work best for destination management
    • Limits of Acceptable Change
    • Mapping
    • Benchmarking will be critical