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BIOMEMBRANES. István Léránt. BIOMEMBRANES. Barriers Define the inside and the outside of the cells Sheetlike structures Closed bounderies Specific proteins serve as Pumps Channels Receptors Energy transducers. Comparision of various types of membranes. as a % of the total mass.

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Biomembranes

BIOMEMBRANES

István Léránt


Biomembranes1
BIOMEMBRANES

Barriers

Definetheinside and theoutside of thecells

Sheetlikestructures

Closedbounderies

Specificproteinsserveas

Pumps

Channels

Receptors

Energytransducers

A biomembránok felépítése


Comparision of various types of membranes
Comparision of varioustypesofmembranes

as a % of thetotalmass

A biomembránok felépítése


Membranes
MEMBRANES

  • Membranesconsistmaily of

    • Lipids

    • Proteins

    • 1:1 ratio (1:4 -> 4:1)

    • Carbohydrates

      • Glycolipids

      • Glycoproteins

  • Lipidbilayer - barrier

  • Hydrophylic & hydrophobicsidechains

  • Specificproteinsas

    • Pumps

    • channels

    • Receptors

Barriers

Definetheinside and theoutside of thecells

Sheetlikestructures

Closedbounderies

Specificproteinsserveas

Pumps

Channels

Receptors

Energytransducers

A biomembránok felépítése


Comparision of various lipid compoments
Comparision of variouslipidcompoments

Neutrallipids

Membranlipids

Structure – form.

Phospholipids

Glycolipids

Cholesterol

Triacylglycerols

Energystores

  • Fattycid(1)

Fattycid(1)

sphingosine

sphingosine

  • Fattycid(2)

Glycerol

Fattyacid

Fattyacud

Glyerol

Fattycid(2)

Glu / Gal

P

P

Choline

Fattycid(3)

Alcohol

Ceramide

Specificfunction

Steroidalhormones

Eicosanoids

Vitamins (A, D, E, K)

Phospholipids

Glycoproteins BIOMEMBRANES

A biomembránok felépítése


Membranes1
MEMBRANES

Phosphatidicacid

PHOSPHOLIPIDS

PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES

Sphingolipids - sphingomyelin

Sn-1 – Fattyacid

Sn-2 – Fattyacid – usuallyunsaturated, polyunsaturated

‘alcohol’ – choline

ethanolamine

serine

inositol

A biomembránok felépítése


Membranes2
MEMBRANES

PHOSPHOLIPIDS

PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES

Sphingolipids - sphingomyelin

A biomembránok felépítése


Digestion of phospholipids by
Digestion of phospholipidsby

Specificphospholipaseenzymes

phospholipase A1

phospholipase A2

Lysophospholipid

X

phospholipase C

phospholipase D

A biomembránok felépítése


víz

Polarcomponent

phosphate

Glycerol

„head” hydrophyl

„Tail” hydrophob

A biomembránok felépítése


Membranes3
MEMBRANES

PHOSPHOLIPIDS

PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES

Sphingolipids - sphingomyelin

A biomembránok felépítése


A sphingomyeline
A sphingomyeline

Fattyacids

Phosphoricacid

Sphingosine

Ceramide

Choline

A biomembránok felépítése


Glycolipids
Glycolipids

A biomembránok felépítése


Membranes4
MEMBRANES

  • Lipidbilayer

  • Phospholipid, cholesterolration

    • Type of membrane

  • Dualinfluence of cholesterol

A biomembránok felépítése


Membranes5
MEMBRANES

A biomembránok felépítése


In vitro preparation of liposomes
IN VITRO – PREPARATION OF LIPOSOMES

A biomembránok felépítése


In vitro preparation of liposomes1
IN VITRO – PREPARATION OF LIPOSOMES

A biomembránok felépítése


In vitro preparation of liposomes2
IN VITRO – PREPARATION OF LIPOSOMES

A biomembránok felépítése


In vitro preparation of liposomes3
IN VITRO – PREPARATION OF LIPOSOMES

  • Outerlayer

    • phosphatidylcholine

    • Sphingomyelin

  • Innerlayer

    • phosphatidylethanolamine

    • phosphatidylserine

  • Lipidmovementinmembranes

    • Rotation

    • Lateraldiffusion

    • Flip-flop

MEMBRÁNOK ASSZIMETRIÁJA

A biomembránok felépítése


Rapid diffusion of memberan lipids and proteins
Rapid diffusion of memberanlipids and proteins

  • Flourescencerecoveryafterphotobleaching (FRAP)

  • Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP)

Membrancompoment is labelledbyfluorescentdye

~ 3 mm2surfacearea

Bleaching

A biomembránok felépítése


Membran proteins
MEMBRAN PROTEINS

Way of isolation:

Periferialmembraneproteins

pH changement

Salt concentration

Integralmembraneproteins

Intensivetreatment

Detergents

Organicsolvents

Hyrophobic, transmembranedomain

(~ 25 hydrophobicaminoacids)

Integral (a,b,c) and peripherial (d,e) membraneproteins

A biomembránok felépítése


Structure of bacteriorhodopsine

a-hélix

Citoplazma felőli nézet

A biomembránok felépítése


Covalently bound proteins
Covalentlyboundproteins

Palmityl-group – HS-Cys THIOESTER

C terminalCys -. Farnesyl-group

GPI – ancor (glycosyl-phosphatydil-inositol) (enthanol-amin – P – mannose, GlcNac –Glycosylphosphatydilinositol GPI)

A biomembránok felépítése


Singer nicholson model
SINGER-NICHOLSON MODEL

  • Lipidbilayer

  • Integral – transzmembrane - proteins

  • Membrane

    • Lipidbilayer

    • Glycolipids (‘-’ charge)

  • Internalperipherialproteins

  • Fluid-mosaicmodel

Twodimensionalsolution of membrane – lipids and globularproteins

Solvent of integralproteins

Lateraldiffusion of protein is free

Permeabilitybarrier

A biomembránok felépítése


Lipids of biomembranes
LIPIDS OF BIOMEMBRANES

Phospholipids

Glycolipids

Cholesterol

Stearinicacidoctadecanoicacid, 18: 0

Oleicacid, cis-9-octadecenoic acidcis 18:1

Linolic, cis, cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acidcis,cis 18:2

A biomembránok felépítése


Membrane fluidity and unsaturated fatty acids cholesterol
Membranefluidity and unsaturatedfattyacids + cholesterol

A biomembránok felépítése


Structure of membranes

Membranfunctions

Signaltransduction

Signaltransformation

Structure of membranes

Barriers

Definetheinside and theoutside of thecells

Sheetlikestructures

Closedbounderies

Specificproteinsserveas

Pumps

Channels

Receptors

Energytransducers

Signaltransduction

Answer

Second

mesengers

Hormons

External

signals

Biochemical

changement

Receptor

A biomembránok felépítése