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NEWFOUNDLAND and LABRADOR

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  1. Protected Species and Protected Spaces NEWFOUNDLAND and LABRADOR

  2. OUTLINE • NATIVE and INTRODUCED SPECIES • Definitions • Impacts of Introduced Species • NL Examples • PROTECTED SPECIES • Why Do Organisms Become Species at Risk? • Why Protect Species? • At Risk Categories • NL Examples • Anthropogenic vs Natural Extinctions • Species Recovery • PROTECTED SPACES • Introduction • Why Protect Spaces? • Categories of Protected Spaces • NL Examples

  3. NATIVE AND INTRODUCED SPECIES

  4. Native versus Introduced Species • NATIVE SPECIES • Any organisms that occur naturally in an area or region. • INTRODUCED SPECIES • Any species that has been accidentally or intentionally introduced to an ecosystem by human activity. • Also known as ALIEN SPECIES or EXOTIC SPECIES • INVASIVE SPECIES • Introduced species that outcompete native species.

  5. Impacts of Introduced Species • POSSIBLE IMPACTS INCLUDE: • Outcompete Native species with similar niches • Upset ecosystem balance by creating new feeding relationships • Bring disease • EXAMPLE • Green Crab • Example of an INVASIVE SPECIES • Coyote • Example of an INTRODUCED SPECIES • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-K1wrn8mDI • HHW video • http://www.env.gov.nl.ca/env/wildlife/publications/coyotenews2.pdf

  6. NL Examples

  7. NATIVE SPECIES

  8. INTRODUCED SPECIES

  9. PROTECTED SPECIES

  10. Why do Organisms Become At Risk? • The main reason is HABITAT LOSS. • OTHERS • Genetic and Reproductive Isolation • Suppression of Natural Events • Environmental Contamination • Over Harvesting • Excessive Trade • Climate Change • Disease • Presence of Invasive Species

  11. Why Protect Species? • Protection of biodiversity is key to survival of the whole ecosystem. • SARA • Species at Risk Act • Protects wildlife through recovery and population management plans. • COSEWIC • Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada • Identify, document, and recommend species to the national list

  12. At Risk Categories • EXTINCT • A Species that no longer exists anywhere on Earth. • ENDANGERED • A Species that is close to extinction in all parts of its natural habitat. • EXTIRPATED • A species that no longer exists in one part of natural range.

  13. At Risk Categories • THREATENED • Any species that is likely to become endangered. • VULNERABLE/SPECIAL CONCERN • Any species that has low or declining numbers. • NOT AT RISK • Any species with a healthy population. • DATA DEFICIENT • Not enough information of assess.

  14. NL Examples • LINK • Extinct • Great Auk, Labrador Duck, Newfoundland Wolf • Endangered • Blue Whale, Atlantic Wolffish, Wolverine, Piping Plover, Eskimo Curlew • Extirpated • Atlantic Walrus • Threataned • NL Marten, Peregrine Falcon • Special Concern • Polar Bear

  15. EXTINCT IN NL • GREAT AUK • Last one died in captivity in 1844. • One habitat was the Funk Island, off the coast of NEwfoundland. • Decline due to overhunting.

  16. EXTINCT IN NL • LABRADOR DUCK • Last one seen alive in 1878. • Decline due to habitat loss, pollution, decline of shellfish population.

  17. EXTINCT IN NL • NEWFOUNDLAND WOLF • Mostly due to decline in caribou population • Last seen about 1930.

  18. ENDANGERED IN NL • Blue Whale • Largest Existing Animal in the World • 3000-5000 individuals Left • Decline due to whaling, global warming, and food loss.

  19. ENDANGERED IN NL • ATLANTIC WOLFFISH • Atlantic Ocean Habitat • Decline due to Bottom Trawling

  20. ENDANGERED IN NL • WOLVERINE • No verified reports in QC. Since 1978 • No verified reports in LAB since 1950 • Omnivores • Decline due to hunting, trapping, dwindling caribou population, poison baits, habitat loss

  21. ENDANGERED IN NL • Piping Plover • Decline due to loss of habitat, human disturbance, global warming

  22. ENDANGERED IN NL • ESKIMO CURLEW • Unrestricted hunting between 1870 and 1890 • Thought to be extinct

  23. EXTIRPATED IN NL • ATLANTIC WALRUS • Extirpated from NW Atlantic • Still found in Arctic • Extirpated around 1850.

  24. Threatened IN NL • NEWFOUNDLAND MARTEN • At one point, 300 pairs left in NL and categorized as endangered • Numbers are increasing • Decline due to accidental trapping, predation, and habitat loss.

  25. THREATENED IN NL • WOODLAND CARIBOU • Decline due to habitat loss, hunting, human disturbance, predation, climate change.

  26. SPECIAL CONCERN • POLAR BEAR • Found in ARCTIC • Decline due to overharvesting, climate change, pollution (especially oil spills and pesticides)

  27. THREATANED in NL • PEREGRINE FALCON • Agricultural pesticides cause egg thinning/breaking and reduced breeding.

  28. Natural Extinction • NATURAL EXTINCTIONS • Extinctions have been occurring since life began and represent a NATURAL PROCESS. • Examples of causes include: • CATASTROPHIC EVENTS • Volcanic eruption • Tidal Wave • Earthquake • Meteor Crash • CLIMATE CHANGE • CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS • Competition • Predation • Disease

  29. EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS One Theory • 65 MILLION YEARS AGO • Why did the Dinosaurs Go Extinct?

  30. EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS LINK LINK LINK

  31. EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS • EVIDENCE: • 9.6 km deep and 300 km wide crater just off the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico • The impact clouded the earth in a layer of dust. • Dinosaurs could not survive.

  32. EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS

  33. ANTHROPOGENIC EXTINCTIONS • Today, we have ANTHROPOGENIC EXTINCTIONS, which are human-related. • Today, due to human activities, extinctions are occurring at a FASTER rate than any other time in history. • Estimates are between 1000 to 10000 times greater rates of extinction due to human activity. • Examples of Causes Include: • Habitat Loss • Overhunting/fishing/trapping • Pollution

  34. Species Recovery • STEPS: • RESEARCH • Studying what the species needs to survive • MONITOR POPULATION • Keep an eye on recovery efforts through research. • STEWARDSHIP • Individuals/groups take responsibility • EDUCATION • Educate the general public about the species • SOCIO-ECONOMIC • Find out how the habitat is being used. • RECOVERY TEAMS • Concrete plans to increase species numbers

  35. THE MORAL OF THE STORY • "Those who wish to pet and baby wildlife love them, but those who respect their natures and wish to let them live their natural lives, love them more."- Edwin Way Teale

  36. GROS MORNE LITTLE GRAND LAKE ECOLOGICAL RESERVE PROTECTED SPACES BARACHOIS PROVINCIAL PARK BLOW-ME-DOWN PROVINCIAL PARK

  37. Introduction • PROTECTED AREAS • NATURAL SPACESthat are LEGALLY protected from harmful human use so that they maintain their ecological integrity. • HOW MUCH OF NL is PROTECTED AREA? • 18000 km2 or 4.5 % of the total land mass. • These are protected by the FEDERAL AND PROVINCIAL government. • HOW MUCH OF CANADA is PROTECTED AREA? • 1,050,000 km2 or 10.5 % of the total land mass. • These are protected by Parks Canada, Environment Canada, and Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

  38. Why Protect Spaces? • ENVIRONMENTAL CONNECTIONS • It is important to maintain natural areas that are relatively free of human impact. • SOCIAL CONNECTIONS • Examples include sightseeing, hiking, bird watching, kayaking, camping, etc. • ECONOMIC CONNECTIONS • Tourism revenue, Environmental Research Funding, Educational Initiatives, etc. • SPIRITUAL CONNECTIONS • Our natural environment is deeply tied to our culture, history, and heritage in NL.

  39. Categories of Protected Spaces • NATIONAL PARKS • Protect ecosystems that are representative of each of Canada’s natural regions. • NL Examples • GROS MORNE, TERRA NOVA, TORNGAT MOUNTAINS • PROPOSED 4thMEALY MOUNTAINS • NATIONAL HISTORIC SITES • Protect nationally significant places, people, and events. • NL Examples • Port au Choix National Historic Site • L’Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site

  40. GROS MORNE NATIONAL PARK LINK LINK

  41. TORNGAT MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK RESERVE LINK

  42. L’ANSE AUX MEADOWS NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE LINK LINK PORT AUX CHOIX NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE

  43. Categories of Protected Spaces • MIGRATORY BIRD SANCTURIES • Protects migratory bird habitat, such as nesting or wintering grounds. • NATIONAL MARINE CONSERVATION AREAS • Manages for sustainable use and zones of high protection. • Ex: seabed, wetlands, estuaries, etc. • MARINE PROTECTED AREAS • Protects marine habitat.

  44. Categories of Protected Spaces • WILDERNESS RESERVES • Protect the habitat of wide-ranging species, such as caribou. • ECOLOGICAL RESERVES • Protects 4 items: • Sections of ecoregions • Rare Species • Exceptionally biodiverse areas (ex: seabird colonies) • Unusual natural features (ex: fossils) • PROVINCIAL PARKS • Used for recreation, but also provide some protection for natural features and species.

  45. CAPE ST. MARY’S ECOLOGICAL RESERVE LINK

  46. Categories of Protected Spaces • WILDLIFE RESERVES • Protect the habitat of a particular wildlife species. • WILDLIFE PARKS • Used for wildlife rehabilitation and educational/research purposes. • One in NL: Salmonier Nature Park • CROWN/PUBLIC RESERVES • Not generally protected, but can be set aside for a variety of reasons. • Glover Island Public Reserve (marten habitat)