Protected Species and Protected Spaces NEWFOUNDLAND and LABRADOR
OUTLINE • NATIVE and INTRODUCED SPECIES • Definitions • Impacts of Introduced Species • NL Examples • PROTECTED SPECIES • Why Do Organisms Become Species at Risk? • Why Protect Species? • At Risk Categories • NL Examples • Anthropogenic vs Natural Extinctions • Species Recovery • PROTECTED SPACES • Introduction • Why Protect Spaces? • Categories of Protected Spaces • NL Examples
Native versus Introduced Species • NATIVE SPECIES • Any organisms that occur naturally in an area or region. • INTRODUCED SPECIES • Any species that has been accidentally or intentionally introduced to an ecosystem by human activity. • Also known as ALIEN SPECIES or EXOTIC SPECIES • INVASIVE SPECIES • Introduced species that outcompete native species.
Impacts of Introduced Species • POSSIBLE IMPACTS INCLUDE: • Outcompete Native species with similar niches • Upset ecosystem balance by creating new feeding relationships • Bring disease • EXAMPLE • Green Crab • Example of an INVASIVE SPECIES • Coyote • Example of an INTRODUCED SPECIES • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-K1wrn8mDI • HHW video • http://www.env.gov.nl.ca/env/wildlife/publications/coyotenews2.pdf
Why do Organisms Become At Risk? • The main reason is HABITAT LOSS. • OTHERS • Genetic and Reproductive Isolation • Suppression of Natural Events • Environmental Contamination • Over Harvesting • Excessive Trade • Climate Change • Disease • Presence of Invasive Species
Why Protect Species? • Protection of biodiversity is key to survival of the whole ecosystem. • SARA • Species at Risk Act • Protects wildlife through recovery and population management plans. • COSEWIC • Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada • Identify, document, and recommend species to the national list
At Risk Categories • EXTINCT • A Species that no longer exists anywhere on Earth. • ENDANGERED • A Species that is close to extinction in all parts of its natural habitat. • EXTIRPATED • A species that no longer exists in one part of natural range.
At Risk Categories • THREATENED • Any species that is likely to become endangered. • VULNERABLE/SPECIAL CONCERN • Any species that has low or declining numbers. • NOT AT RISK • Any species with a healthy population. • DATA DEFICIENT • Not enough information of assess.
NL Examples • LINK • Extinct • Great Auk, Labrador Duck, Newfoundland Wolf • Endangered • Blue Whale, Atlantic Wolffish, Wolverine, Piping Plover, Eskimo Curlew • Extirpated • Atlantic Walrus • Threataned • NL Marten, Peregrine Falcon • Special Concern • Polar Bear
EXTINCT IN NL • GREAT AUK • Last one died in captivity in 1844. • One habitat was the Funk Island, off the coast of NEwfoundland. • Decline due to overhunting.
EXTINCT IN NL • LABRADOR DUCK • Last one seen alive in 1878. • Decline due to habitat loss, pollution, decline of shellfish population.
EXTINCT IN NL • NEWFOUNDLAND WOLF • Mostly due to decline in caribou population • Last seen about 1930.
ENDANGERED IN NL • Blue Whale • Largest Existing Animal in the World • 3000-5000 individuals Left • Decline due to whaling, global warming, and food loss.
ENDANGERED IN NL • ATLANTIC WOLFFISH • Atlantic Ocean Habitat • Decline due to Bottom Trawling
ENDANGERED IN NL • WOLVERINE • No verified reports in QC. Since 1978 • No verified reports in LAB since 1950 • Omnivores • Decline due to hunting, trapping, dwindling caribou population, poison baits, habitat loss
ENDANGERED IN NL • Piping Plover • Decline due to loss of habitat, human disturbance, global warming
ENDANGERED IN NL • ESKIMO CURLEW • Unrestricted hunting between 1870 and 1890 • Thought to be extinct
EXTIRPATED IN NL • ATLANTIC WALRUS • Extirpated from NW Atlantic • Still found in Arctic • Extirpated around 1850.
Threatened IN NL • NEWFOUNDLAND MARTEN • At one point, 300 pairs left in NL and categorized as endangered • Numbers are increasing • Decline due to accidental trapping, predation, and habitat loss.
THREATENED IN NL • WOODLAND CARIBOU • Decline due to habitat loss, hunting, human disturbance, predation, climate change.
SPECIAL CONCERN • POLAR BEAR • Found in ARCTIC • Decline due to overharvesting, climate change, pollution (especially oil spills and pesticides)
THREATANED in NL • PEREGRINE FALCON • Agricultural pesticides cause egg thinning/breaking and reduced breeding.
Natural Extinction • NATURAL EXTINCTIONS • Extinctions have been occurring since life began and represent a NATURAL PROCESS. • Examples of causes include: • CATASTROPHIC EVENTS • Volcanic eruption • Tidal Wave • Earthquake • Meteor Crash • CLIMATE CHANGE • CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS • Competition • Predation • Disease
EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS One Theory • 65 MILLION YEARS AGO • Why did the Dinosaurs Go Extinct?
EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS LINK LINK LINK
EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS • EVIDENCE: • 9.6 km deep and 300 km wide crater just off the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico • The impact clouded the earth in a layer of dust. • Dinosaurs could not survive.
ANTHROPOGENIC EXTINCTIONS • Today, we have ANTHROPOGENIC EXTINCTIONS, which are human-related. • Today, due to human activities, extinctions are occurring at a FASTER rate than any other time in history. • Estimates are between 1000 to 10000 times greater rates of extinction due to human activity. • Examples of Causes Include: • Habitat Loss • Overhunting/fishing/trapping • Pollution
Species Recovery • STEPS: • RESEARCH • Studying what the species needs to survive • MONITOR POPULATION • Keep an eye on recovery efforts through research. • STEWARDSHIP • Individuals/groups take responsibility • EDUCATION • Educate the general public about the species • SOCIO-ECONOMIC • Find out how the habitat is being used. • RECOVERY TEAMS • Concrete plans to increase species numbers
THE MORAL OF THE STORY • "Those who wish to pet and baby wildlife love them, but those who respect their natures and wish to let them live their natural lives, love them more."- Edwin Way Teale
GROS MORNE LITTLE GRAND LAKE ECOLOGICAL RESERVE PROTECTED SPACES BARACHOIS PROVINCIAL PARK BLOW-ME-DOWN PROVINCIAL PARK
Introduction • PROTECTED AREAS • NATURAL SPACESthat are LEGALLY protected from harmful human use so that they maintain their ecological integrity. • HOW MUCH OF NL is PROTECTED AREA? • 18000 km2 or 4.5 % of the total land mass. • These are protected by the FEDERAL AND PROVINCIAL government. • HOW MUCH OF CANADA is PROTECTED AREA? • 1,050,000 km2 or 10.5 % of the total land mass. • These are protected by Parks Canada, Environment Canada, and Department of Fisheries and Oceans.
Why Protect Spaces? • ENVIRONMENTAL CONNECTIONS • It is important to maintain natural areas that are relatively free of human impact. • SOCIAL CONNECTIONS • Examples include sightseeing, hiking, bird watching, kayaking, camping, etc. • ECONOMIC CONNECTIONS • Tourism revenue, Environmental Research Funding, Educational Initiatives, etc. • SPIRITUAL CONNECTIONS • Our natural environment is deeply tied to our culture, history, and heritage in NL.
Categories of Protected Spaces • NATIONAL PARKS • Protect ecosystems that are representative of each of Canada’s natural regions. • NL Examples • GROS MORNE, TERRA NOVA, TORNGAT MOUNTAINS • PROPOSED 4thMEALY MOUNTAINS • NATIONAL HISTORIC SITES • Protect nationally significant places, people, and events. • NL Examples • Port au Choix National Historic Site • L’Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site
GROS MORNE NATIONAL PARK LINK LINK
L’ANSE AUX MEADOWS NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE LINK LINK PORT AUX CHOIX NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE
Categories of Protected Spaces • MIGRATORY BIRD SANCTURIES • Protects migratory bird habitat, such as nesting or wintering grounds. • NATIONAL MARINE CONSERVATION AREAS • Manages for sustainable use and zones of high protection. • Ex: seabed, wetlands, estuaries, etc. • MARINE PROTECTED AREAS • Protects marine habitat.
Categories of Protected Spaces • WILDERNESS RESERVES • Protect the habitat of wide-ranging species, such as caribou. • ECOLOGICAL RESERVES • Protects 4 items: • Sections of ecoregions • Rare Species • Exceptionally biodiverse areas (ex: seabird colonies) • Unusual natural features (ex: fossils) • PROVINCIAL PARKS • Used for recreation, but also provide some protection for natural features and species.
Categories of Protected Spaces • WILDLIFE RESERVES • Protect the habitat of a particular wildlife species. • WILDLIFE PARKS • Used for wildlife rehabilitation and educational/research purposes. • One in NL: Salmonier Nature Park • CROWN/PUBLIC RESERVES • Not generally protected, but can be set aside for a variety of reasons. • Glover Island Public Reserve (marten habitat)