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Unit 1: European Colonization of America. Lesson 3: Conquistadors. Conquistadors. Standards. Strand: History Topic: Colonization to Independence

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  • Strand: History
  • Topic: Colonization to Independence
  • European countries established colonies in North America as a means of increasing wealth and power. As the English colonies developed their own governments and economies, they resisted domination by the monarchy, rebelled and fought for independence.
  • Content Statement: 2
  • North America, originally inhabited by American Indians, was explored and colonized by Europeans for economic and religious reasons.
essential question
Essential Question
  • What were the economic and religious reasons for Europeans (the Spanish) coming to North and South America?
effects of the reconquista
Effects of the Reconquista
  • During the Reconquista in Spain, (fighting with the Moors of N. Africa) there was constant war.
    • This created a class of warriors that had little land or money.
  • When the Reconquista ended, these soldiers were out of work.
  • Many Spanish soldiers chose to move to the Americas to seek fortune and fame.
  • Conquistadores – Spanish soldiers who led military expeditions in the Americas.
  • Hernán Cortés – Spanish conquistador sent to present-day Mexico in 1519.

He heard stories of a wealthy land ruled by King Moctezuma.

  • He wanted to find Moctezuma and capture him and his treasure in the name of the King of Spain.
  • Traveled with around 600 armed soldiers, 16 horses, and war dogs.
kingdom of the aztec
Kingdom of the Aztec
  • Moctezuma II (aka Montezuma)- King of the Aztec Empire
    • Rich civilization was made up of millions of people with thousands of warriors.
    • While he had many warriors, his people had never seen horses and had no guns.
cort s plan
Cortés’ Plan
  • Cortés hoped his superior weapons, horses, and war dogs would frighten the Aztecs and bring him victory.
moctezuma s response
Moctezuma’s Response
  • Moctezuma sent Cortés gifts of gold and other valuables to try and keep him away from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán.
  • The signs of wealth only encouraged Cortés and increased his greed.
cort s and moctezuma
Cortés and Moctezuma
  • Moctezuma was friendly to the Spanish, but Cortés took him prisoner and captured the city.
  • The Aztec rebelled and fought back against the Spanish.
  • The outnumbered Spanish suffered heavy losses.
  • During the battle of Tenochtitlán, Moctezuma was wounded and died shortly after.

The Spanish fought the Aztec for several months.

  • Cortés gathered thousands of soldiers from other American Indian groups and equipped his fleet with cannons.
  • The city was destroyed shortly after.
  • Cortés conquered a territory larger than Spain.
effects on the aztec
Effects on the Aztec
  • After the capital fell, other towns soon fell to Cortés and his men.
  • Hundreds of thousands of Aztec also began to die from Spanish diseases such as smallpox.
  • These losses and the spread of disease led to the fall of the Aztec empire.
francisco pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
  • News of Cortés’ success and fortune inspired other conquistadores.
  • Francisco Pizarro was a conquistador who heard of Cortés’ success and wanted to become rich and famous as well.
  • Pizarro heard rumors of golden cities in the mountains of South America.
  • In 1531, Pizarro landed with a small army on the coast of present-day Peru.
pizarro and the inca
Pizarro and the Inca
  • Pizarro soon reached the Incan Empire.
  • It stretched from present-day Chile to Colombia.

The Inca leader, Atahualpa (ah-ta-wall-pa) heard about Pizarro and his men but he was not afraid

    • Pizarro only had around 200 men compared to the thousands of the Inca
factors against the inca
Factors against the Inca
  • The Inca could not compete with the Spanish invaders’ swords and guns
  • Smallpox also killed tens of thousands of Inca
  • The Inca also were involved in a civil war with forces led by Atahualpa’s half-brother.
fall of the inca
Fall of the Inca
  • Pizarro arranged a meeting with Atahualpa.
  • Pizarro lured Atahualpa and his men to the feast, and then opened fire on the unarmed Inca.
  • He then kidnapped Atahualpa and tried to force him to convert to Christianity.
cont d
  • While holding him captive, Pizarro made plans to gain power over the Inca
  • He then ransomed Atahualpa for Incan gold and silver
  • For Atahualpa’s safe return, the Inca delivered 24 tons of gold and silver to Pizarro.
  • Instead of freeing him, Pizarro killed Atahualpa.
  • Pizarro then joined with several Inca rebel leaders, and eventually conquered the Inca Empire.
  • Conquistadors had conquered a huge territory for Spain.
  • After mid 1500’s, Spain’s American empire was larger than that of any other European nation.
  • Spain ran into the problem of trying to control an empire across the Atlantic ocean
spanish empire
Spanish Empire
  • Spain ruled its American empire through a system of royal officials.
  • The Council of the Indies was formed to govern the Americas from Spain
    • The Council appointed two viceroys
      • The Viceroyalty of Peru
        • Most of South America
      • The Viceroyalty of New Spain
        • Central America and Mexico
spanish empire1
Spanish Empire
  • Most of the local officials were not carefully watched
    • The empire was so large it was difficult to oversee everything that happened.
  • The people in Spanish America lived in the old Aztec and Inca Empires
  • These lands were full with gold and silver mines
    • This gold and silver would be shipped back to Spain
ruling new spain
Ruling New Spain
  • There were three kinds of settlements in New Spain
    • Pueblos - trading posts and centers of government
      • Formed on the sites of American Indian villages
    • Missions – Religious community built around a church
      • Used to convert local American Indians to Catholicism
    • Presidios – Military forts
      • Used to protect the towns and missions
ruling new spain1
Ruling New Spain
  • Orders from King Phillip II of Spain also declared that Christianity should be spread through the Native population
    • The natives should also be taught Spanish customs and ways of life.
life in new spain
Life in New Spain
  • Many settlers relied heavily on the labor of American Indians
  • Spain established the encomienda

(en-com-e-enda) system

    • This gave Spanish settlers the right to tax local American Indians or to make them work
    • In exchange, these settlers were to protect and teach local American Indians
life in new spain1
Life in New Spain
  • The settlers also were expected to convert the native Americans to Christianity
  • The native Americans were treated like slaves, being forced to grow crops, work in mines, and herd cattle
  • Many of the native Americans died because of harsh working conditions
  • The natives also were continuing to die because of Spanish disease.
  • In response to these deaths, the Spanish started to bring in enslaved Africans in order to work on plantations.
colonial society social classes
Colonial Society/Social Classes
  • By 1650 the Spanish Empire in America contained between 3 and 4 million people
    • American Indians made up about 80% of the population
  • Spanish law divided society into classes based on birthplace and race
social classes highest to lowest
Social Classes- highest to lowest
    • Peninsulares- were white Spaniards born in Spain
      • Held the highest government offices in New Spain
    • Criollos(cree -o-yo-s)– people born in the Americas to Spanish parents
    • Mestizos – Had both Spanish and American Indian parents
      • Often worked for criollos as laborers or craftspeople
      • Largest group of people of European descent
  • American Indians had only limited legal protection
  • Enslaved Africans had little or no legal protection