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The War Drags On. Topic #37. Lincoln replaces McClellan with General Burnside! Launched a surprise attack against Lee outside of Richmond. Can’t stay organized – ends up retreating after over 12,600 casualties. Confederates only lose about 5,300 soldiers at this battle!.

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fredericksburg dec 1862

Lincoln replaces McClellan with General Burnside!

  • Launched a surprise attack against Lee outside of Richmond.
  • Can’t stay organized – ends up retreating after over 12,600 casualties.
  • Confederates only lose about 5,300 soldiers at this battle!
Fredericksburg – Dec 1862
the emancipation proclamation

Issued in 1862, takes effect January 1, 1863.

  • Frees all slaves living in the “states in rebellion” (Confederacy).
  • Doesn’t free slaves in any Northern states.
  • Has little immediate effect because the South didn’t listen at all.
  • Many slaves were liberated as Union troops won battles in the south.
The Emancipation Proclamation
chancellorsville apr 1863

Burnside resigns his post, and General Hooker takes over!

  • Hooker attempts to take Fredericksburg, but hesitates a few miles west in Chancellorsville.
  • Stonewall Jackson’s and Lee’s men attack and after three days, the Union again retreats!
  • Stonewall Jackson accidentally shot by his men and dies a few days later.
Chancellorsville – Apr 1863
siege of vicksburg may july 1863

Union surrounds the city, bombards it with cannon fire and blocks off all food and supplies.

  • City surrenders to General Grant on July 4, 1863
  • Gives the Union full control of the Mississippi.
Siege of Vicksburg – May-July 1863
54 th massachusetts regiment

All black regiment of Union soldiers.

  • Fought bravely at the Battle of Fort Wagner in South Carolina, July 1863.
  • By the end of the war, there had been about 180,000 African Americans that served in the Union Army.
  • Usually led by white officers, because they had gone to military academies.
54th Massachusetts Regiment
conscription the draft

By the end of 1863, the Confederacy had lost 40% of its men.

  • Both sides had many deserters and needed soldiers.
  • Both sides instituted a Draft for military service.
  • A replacement could be purchased for $300.
Conscription – The Draft
women help the war efforts

Performed many farm chores and daily work that men used to do.

  • Served as nurses, spies, factory workers.
  • Clara Burton’s collection of medicine and supplies leads to the establishment of the American Red Cross.
Women help the War Efforts
prisoners of war

Both sides had prisoner of war camps.

  • Most infamous were:
    • Andersonville, Georgia
    • Elmira, New York
  • Many died of overcrowding, starvation, disease, poor shelter, etc.
  • Over 50,000 men die in the POW camps.
Prisoners of War
battle of gettysburg day 1

July 1-3, 1863

  • Union General Meade replaces Hooker!
  • Lee’s Southern Army Raids the Union camp for supplies.
  • Union pushed back, but is able to create solid defensive position.
  • Both sides call for reinforcements.
Battle of Gettysburg – Day 1
battle of gettysburg day 2

Lee ordered a fresh attack to try and take a high hill called Little Round Top.

  • After the full day of fighting, the Confederates had to pull back and the Union kept their positions.
Battle of Gettysburg – Day 2
battle of gettysburg day 3

Lee, against advice to NOT attack, launches another attack.

  • He heads right into the center of the Union lines on Cemetery Ridge.
  • Pickett’s Charge! -- Southern General Pickett’s division thinks the Union is very weak and charges right for them.
  • Union attacks constantly against them, forcing a retreat!
  • Casualties:
    • Union – 23,000
    • Confederate – 28,000
Battle of Gettysburg – Day 3
so what now

Foreign countries decide to NOT help the Confederacy.

  • Lincoln unhappy that General Meade did not follow Lee’s army when they retreated to finish them off.
  • Union feels that they have a chance at winning the war after the Victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg.
  • Lincoln gives the Gettysburg Address in November 1863.
So, what now?!?!