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إختباركفائة اللغة العربية (IKLA). Abdul Munip. Klasifikasi Tes Bahasa. Jenis tes bahasa dilihat dari tujuan. Achievement test ( al-ikhtibâr al-tahshîlî) = Tes Hasil Belajar Bahasa.

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achievement test al ikhtib r al tahsh l tes hasil belajar bahasa
Achievement test (al-ikhtibâr al-tahshîlî) = Tes Hasil Belajar Bahasa
  • Tes hasil belajar bahasa adalah tes yang dimaksudkan menguji apa yang telah diperoleh peserta didik setelah menempuh atau memperoleh pengalaman pendidik-an dalam waktu tertentu.
  • Tes ini terkait dengan kurikulum dan buku ajar yang digunakan oleh lembaga pendidikan, dan pada umumnya dilaksanakan dalam bentuk ujian pada pertengahan atau akhir semester.
proficiency test ikhtib r al ij dah aw al kaf ah
Proficiency test (ikhtibâr al-ijâdah aw al-kafâah)
  • Tes profisiensi adalah tes yang tidak dimaksudkan untuk menguji kebahasaan kebahasaan peserta didik, dan tidak terkait dengan kurikulum, buku ajar dan masa program belajar tertentu, melainkan menguji kemampuan dan keterampilan bahasa peserta didik secara umum.
  • Yang termasuk jenis tes ini adalah TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) atau TOAFL (Test of Arabic as a Foreign Language).
language aptitude test ikhtib r al isti d d al lughaw
Language aptitude test (ikhtibâr al-isti‘dâd al-lughawî)
  • Tes kesiapan atau prediksi adalah tes yang dimaksudkan untuk menentukan tingkat kesiapan peserta didik untuk belajar bahasa kedua, dan memprediksi kemajuan yang akan dicapai peserta didik.
  • Bisa berfungsi sebagai placement test
  • Tes ini juga mengukur aspek audio-visual peserta didik, terutama mengukur kemampuannya dalam membedakan berbagai tarâkîb lugawiyyah.
bagaimana dengan ikla
Bagaimana dengan IKLA?
  • IKLA merupakan sejenis tes proficiency yang bersifattertulis dengantujuan mengukur kemampuan peserta tes (tester) dalam menguasai kemahiran berbahasa Arab Arab sebagai alat komunikasi secara aktif.
  • Diharapkan tes IKLA bisaberfungsisebagai:
    • Tes standard untuk mengukur kemampuan peserta tes dalam menguasai kemampuan berbahasa Arab modern yang diakui secara nasional maupun internasiona
    • Tes standar yang mampu memprediksi kemampuan siswa dalam menguasai keterampilan berbahasa Arab untuk mengikuti perkulaiahan di berbagai perguruan tinggi yang menggunakan bahasa Arab sebagai bahasa pengantarnya.
ikla mengacu kemana
IKLA mengacu kemana?
  • Jika IKLA diproyeksikansebagai tes standar yang diakui secara internasional, maka harus mengacu kepada standar penguasaan bahasa yang telah dirumuskan oleh lembaga internasional.
  • Setidaknya ada dua lembaga internasional yang menjadi rujukan penyusunan tes-tes profesinsi berbagai bahasa di dunia, yaitu:
    • ACTFL = American Concil on the Teaching Foreign Language, yakni sebuah lembaga yang sering menjadi rujukan dalam pengembangan tes bahasa asing yang berbasis di Amerika. Arabacademy, sebuah lembaga bahasa Arab yang berbasis di Mesir juga mengembangkan tes profesiensi bahasa Arab (Arabic Language Proficiency Test) dengan merujuk pada ACTFL ini.
    • TELC - The European Language Certificates, yang berbasis di Eropa. Yang telah mengembangkan Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). Standar ini telah diadopsi oleh AL-ARABIYYA-TEST (http://www.test-arabic.com/en), sebuah tes profisiensi bahasa Arab yang berbasis di Jerman.
standar actlf
Standar ACTLF
  • ACTLF telah menerbitkan panduan pengembangan tes profesiensi bahasa asing pada tahun 2012 ini.
  • Panduan tersebut berisi standar kemahiran berbahasa asing yang terdiri dari listening, speaking, reading dan writing.
  • Masing-masing kemahiran tersebut diklasifikasikan menjadi 6 tingkat kemahiran, yaitu:
    • Distinguished,
    • Superior,
    • Advanced,
    • Intermediate, and
    • Novice.
  • Khusus untuk tingkatan advances, intermediate, dan novice terbagi lagi menjadi tingkatan high, mid, dan low
  • Panduan selengkapnya dapat dibaca di sini
standar telc
Standar TELC
  • Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)mengelompokkan kemampuan berbahasa (listening, speaking, reading, dan writing) ke dalam empat tingkatan, yaitu A1, A2, B1, dan B2.
    • A1
      • Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type.
      • Can introduce him / herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has.
      • Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.
slide11

A2

    • Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment).
    • Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters.
    • Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
  • B1
    • Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.
    • Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken.
    • Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest.
    • Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes & ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.
slide12

B2

      • Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialization.
      • Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party.
      • Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
alpt www arabacademy com
ALPT (www.arabacademy.com)
  • Arab Academy’s Arabic Language Proficiency Test(ALPT) is the global standard for measuring student proficiency levels in Arabic. It is used to indicate proficiency in the five language skills: Listening Comprehension, Reading, Structure,Writing, and Speaking. Development of the ALPT began in 2002, and since then leading experts in the field of Arabic Language Training have cooperated with Arab Academy to produce a valid and reliable test.
  • The advantages of having such a worldwide standard to measure Arabic language proficiency include:
    • Accurate student placement into appropriate Arabic langauge course levels
    • Assessing the effectiveness of Arabic language courses and programs through pre and post-program testing
    • Evaluating test-takers and their likelihood of success prior to admission to Arabic language programs or Arab universities
    • Facilitates admission to academic programs that need a minimum level of Arabic fluency
    • Provides proof of Arabic language fluency for employees who need to present such certificates to current or prospective employers
slide15

Konon telah ada kerjasama antara Kemenag dengan Arabacademy ini:

    • The Arabic Language Proficiency Test (ALPT) is endorsed by the Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI). There are 56 member countries under ICCI that include all 22 Arab countries as well as 34 countries in Africa and the Far East.
    • The Ministry of Religious Affairs in Indonesia (MORA) has signed a cooperation agreement with the Arab Academy that relates to the utilization of ALPT at universities, institutes and schools that fall under it.
  • Dalam wikipedia diungkapkan bahwa ALPT telah digunakan di berbagai negara
    • ALPT - Arabic Language Proficiency Test, Arabic Academy, Cairo, Egypt
    • ALPT - Arabic Language Proficiency Test, TigerLilly Arabic Institute, Grand Rapids, USA
    • ALPT - Arabic Language Proficiency Test, Madinah Arabic Language Tuition Center
al arabiyya test
Al-Arabiyya Test
  • The AL-ARABIYYA-TEST is the first recognized computer-based standard test for Arabic at the levels A1/A2, B1 and B2.
    • You would like to study or work in an Arab country?
    • You would like to apply for a job requiring proficiency in the Arabic language at the levels A1/A2, B1 and B2?
    • You would like to complete an internship requiring knowledge of Arabic?
    • You need a recognized certificate of your proficiency in the Arabic language?
  • You obtain from us an internationally recognized certificate of your proficiency in the Arabic language.
slide17

The Arabic Test is based upon the level descriptions of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) and is offered at the levels A1/A2, B1 and B2.

  • The AL-ARABIYYA-TEST is the standard test for Arabic to prove proficiency in a universally valid and comprehensible way.
  • Passing the AL-ARABIYYA-TEST successfully increases the prospects of your application with national and international institutions.
slide18

The AL-ARABIYYA TEST consists of 4 components:

    • LISTENING
    • READING
    • WRITING
    • SPEAKING
  • Each one of these components forms an independent unit and must be completely finished before you can continue the test or change to the next test field respectively.
  • You find further information about the structure of the AL-ARABIYYA TEST, the levels and the types of tasks under TEST-Preparation
arabic test area listening
Arabic Test area LISTENING
  • A1 - Can understand familiar expressions and very basic phrases which refer to himself / herself, the family or concrete things, provided the other person talks slowly and clearly.
  • A2 - Can understand single sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, employment, local geography). Understands the essential of short, clear and simple messages and announcements.
  • B1 - Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. Can follow many radio or television broadcasts about topical events and can understand the main information about subjects from the professional field or field of interest if the other person talks relatively slowly and clearly.
  • B2 – Can understand longer contributions and lectures and can also follow complex argumentation if the subject is somewhat familiar. Can understand most news telecasts and on-the-spot reports about topics of the moment in television and Internet. Can understand most feature films if standard language is spoken.
arabic test field reading
Arabic Test field READING
  • A1 – Can understand single familiar names, words and very basic phrases, e. g. on signs, placards or in catalogues.
  • A2 – Can read quite short, simple texts. Can find concrete, foreseeable information in simple everyday texts (e. g. advertisements, brochures, menu cards or timetables) and can understand short, simple personal letters.
  • B1 – Can understand texts in which, above all, very current everyday or professional language occurs. Can understand personal letters, in which events, feelings and wishes are outlined.
  • B2 – Can read and understand articles and reports about problems of the present time, in which the writers hold a certain attitude or a certain viewpoint. Can understand contemporary literary prose texts
arabic test field writing
Arabic Test field WRITING
  • A1 – Can write a short, simple postcard, e. g. holiday greetings. Can enter name, address, nationaliy etc. in forms, e. g. in hotels.
  • A2 – Can write short, simple notes and messages. I can write a quite simple personal letter, e. g. in order to express my thanks for something.
  • B1 – Can write simple connected texts on topics which are familiar to me or of personal interest. Can write personal letters and report in them about experiences.
  • B2 - Can produce clear, detailed text on a great number of subjects which are of interest.Can convey information in an essay or report or express arguments and counterarguments for or against a certain opinion. Can write letters with a personal judgement of events and experiences
arabic test field speaking
Arabic Test field SPEAKING
  • A1Coherent speaking – Can use simple expressions and sentences, in order to describe people whom he / she knows and in order to describe where he / she lives.Dialogue – Can communicate in a simple way if the person in conversation with him / her is prepared to repeat something more slowly or to say it in another way, and helps him / her to formulate what he / she tries to say. Can ask and answer simple questions, provided that it concerns immediately necessary things and very familiar subjects.
  • A2Coherent speaking – Can describe e. g. the family, other people, the living situation, the training and the present or last job by a number of sentences and by simple means.Dialogue – Can make himself / herself understood in simple, routine situations, in which the matter at issue is a simple, direct exchange of information and familiar subjects and activities. Can hold a very short conversation in order to establish contact with someone, but normally does not understand enough to keep the conversation going himself / herself.
slide23

B1Coherent speaking – Can speak in simple, coherent sentences in order to describe experiences and events or dreams, hopes and aims. Can briefly explain and give reasons for his opinions and plans. Can tell a story or give an account of the plot of a book or film and describe reactions.

  • Dialogue – Can cope with most of the situations one comes across when travelling in the speech area. Can participate without preparation in conversations about subjects which are familiar, which are of personal interest or which relate to subjects of everyday life like family, hobbies, work, journeys, topical events.
  • B2Coherent speaking – Can give a clear and detailed description about many subjects from his / her own fields of interest. Can explain a viewpoint about a current issue and give advantages and disadvantages of various options.Dialogue – Can communicate so spontaneously and fluently that a normal conversation with a native speaker is quite possible. Can participate actively in a discussion in familiar situations and justify and defend his / her own opinions.
tasks and types of tasks
TASKS and TYPES OF TASKS
  • The AL-ARABIYYA TEST contains, among others, the following types of tasks:
    • Multiple choice:1 listening text + 1 question + 4 answer defaults = 1 answer is correct
    • Multiple choice:3 listening texts + 3 answer defaults = 1 answer is correct per answer default
    • Assignment3 listening texts + 4 answers (pictures) = to assign 3 answers (pictures) correctly (1 answer (picture) remains)
    • Right / Wrong1 listening text + 5 answer defaults = to tick off 5 answers (right – wrong – no information in the text)
toafl
TOAFL
  • TOAFL adalahsingkatandari “Test of Arabic as Foreign Language”. Namainidiilhamioleh TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language), yang telahadalebihdahulu. Penamaaninimemangdimaksudkan agar TOAFL lebihmudahdiucapkandandikenalolehbanyak orang, meskipunterkesan “menyerupai” TOEFL.
  • PusatBahasa (PB) UIN SyarifHidayatullah Jakarta sebetulnyatelahmembuatnamauntuktesini, yaitu “al-Ikhtibârât al-‘Arabiyyah li al-Dirâsât al-Islâmiyyah  li al-Ajânib” atau “al-Ikhtibârât fi al-Lughah al-‘Arabiyyah li al-Nâthiqîna bi Ghairihâ”. Akan tetapi, TOAFL sudahterlanjurlebihdikenaldanpopuler. Selainitu, TOAFL sudahmenjadi “trademark” atau “brainmark” PB UIN Jakarta
slide26

Penggunaan TOAFL sebagaimateritesdidasarkanpadakebutuhanakademisbahwaparapeserta program S2 dan S3 dituntutmampudanmemilikistandartertentudalamberbahasaasing, utamanya Arab. Selanjutnya, pada 2000/2001, TOAFL jugadigunakansebagaimateritesmasuk di beberapa Program Pascasarjana di luar UIN Jakarta, seperti: IAIN Palembang, IAIN Lampung, IAIN Mataram, STAIN Banjarmasin, dan IAIN Padang, bahkanjuga PPs. Studi Islam, UniversitasMuhammadiyah Jakarta.

  • Saatini, PB telahmemiliki 8 edisi/form TOAFL; dua di antaranyatelahdijadikansebagaibahanpelatihan TOAFL dan yang empatmasih “dijagakerahasiaannya” untukdigunakansebagaibahantes.
  • Jumlah butir soal 150 dengan waktu yang disediakan 120 menit.
fahm al masmu
Fahm al-Masmu’
  • Sejumlah 50 item, meliputi:
    • Pemahaman makna, pengertian, penalaran logis atau kesimpulan dari sebuah pernyataan/kalimat yang diperdengarkan (20 item);
    • Pemahaman maksud, topik, penalaran logis, kesimpulan dan makna tersirat dari dialog singkat antara dua orang (15 item);
    • Pemahaman maksud, topik, penalaran logis, kesimpulan dan makna tersirat dari dialog panjang antara dua orang atau lebih dan alenia pernyataan (15 item).
fahm al tar k b wa al ib r t
Fahm al-Tarâkîb wa al-‘Ibârât
  • Terdiri dari 40 item, meliputi:
    • Melengkapi kalimat dengan ungkapan atau struktur baku (20 item), dan
    • Mengenali dan menganalisis penggunaan kata, ungkapan dan atau struktur yang salah dalam sebuah kalimat (20 item).
fahm al mufrad t wa al nash al makt b
Fahm al-Mufradât wa al-Nash al-Maktûb
  • terdiri dari 40 item, meliputi:
    • Memahami tarâduf (sinonim) atau kedekatan makna suatu yang digarisbawahi sesuai dengan konteks kalimat (20 item);
    • Memahami isi, topik dan makna tersirat dalam beberapa paragraf/wacana ((20 item);
al qawa id
Al-Qawa’id
  • Terdiri dari 20 butir soal yang mencakup:
    • Nahwu
      • Memahami penggunaan, kedudukan (i’râb) dalam kalimat atau jumlah (10 item)
    • Sharaf
      • Memahami derivasi (isytiqâq), dan bentuk kata (10 item)
orientasi
Orientasi
  • Apa tujuan dari tes IKLA di UIN Sunan Kalijaga?
  • Model tes apa yang akan dijadikan referensi?
  • Cakupan kemahiran berbahasa Arab apa saja yang akan diteskan?
  • Berapa butir tes yang akan dikembangkan?
  • Berapa waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mengerjakan tes
  • Bagaimana bentuk soalnya?
  • Bagaimana sistem skoringnya?
  • Bagaimana pengembangan butir tesnya?
  • Bagaimana model pelatihan bagi calon peserta tes?
  • Apa yang perlu dilakukan untuk memperoleh pengakuan eksternal terhadap tes tersebut?
penyusunan ruang lingkup materi tes
Penyusunan ruang lingkup materi tes
  • Kemahiran berbahasa Arab
      • Istima’
        • Tingkat kemampuan istima’ apa saja yang akan diteskan?
      • Kalam?
        • Jika kalam juga diteskan, kemampuan apa saja yang mau diuji?
      • Qira’ah
      • Kitabah?
  • Unsur bahasa Arab
      • Mufradat
        • Kelompok mufradat di bidang apa saja yang mau diteskan,
        • Aspek-aspek pemahaman mufradat apa saja yang mau diteskan? (muradif, ad-dlid, musytarak, dan lain-lain)
      • Qawa’id (struktur)
        • Butir-butir sharfiyah apa saja yang mau diteskan?
        • Butir-butir nahwiyah apa saja yang mau diteskan?
penyusunan blueprint tes
Penyusunan Blueprint Tes
  • Berapa butir tes yang akan disusun?
  • Berapa waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mengerjakan?
  • Bentuk tes apa saja yang akan dibuat?
  • Berapa proporsi (persentase) untuk masing-masing komponen materi tes?
  • Semua itu dituangkan dalam bentuk kisi-kisi instrumen atau yang sejenisnya.
pengembangan spesifikasi butir tes induk
Pengembangan spesifikasi butir (tes induk)
  • Spesifikasi butir tes adalah deskripsi tentang kekhususan setiap butir tes yang mencakup:
    • Tujuan
    • Ruang lingkup cakupan materi
    • Indikator
    • Contoh butir soal
    • Kunci jawaban
  • Spesifikasi butir tes bisa dianggap sebagai pedoman utama bagi siapapun yang mau mengembangkan butir tes.
  • Contoh spesifikasi butir tes dapat dilihat di sini dan di sini