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生態學 (Ecology)

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生態學 (Ecology)

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  1. 生態學 (Ecology) 生物科技學系 鄭先祐 (Ayo) 國立台南大學 環境與生態學院 2008年2月至6月

  2. Textbook: Fundamentals of Ecology • Eugene P. Odum • Gary W. Barrett • University of Georgia Institute of Ecology • http://www.ecology.uga.edu/ Thomson: Brooks/Cole (2005)

  3. Foreword E. O. Wilson • Fundamentals of Ecology is an icon among biology textbooks – the most influential such work as measured by the number of students recruited into the field as researchers and teachers. • Ecology was and remains the discipline that addresses the highest and most complex levels of biological organization. • The study of holism and emergence.

  4. E. O. Wilson • To understand ecology thoroughly would be to understand all of biology, and to be a complete biologist is to be an ecologist. • Ecology is now seen as not just a biological but a human science. • The present edition can serve as a basic ecology text for college majors.

  5. Preface (I) • Retains the classic holistic approach • More emphasis on a multilevel approach based hierarchical theory • More attention to the applications of ecological principles to human predicaments.

  6. Preface (II) • Chap.1: history • Chap.2: ecosystem • Chap.3-5: functional components of ecosystem/landscape dynamics • Chap.6-11 scale levels of organization • Chap.12: quantitative synthesis to the field of ecology

  7. Preface (III) • Fundamentals of Ecology, first ed., 1953 • AIBS 的問卷調查結果(Barrett and Mabry, 2002) • Ranked first as the book that had most influenced career training in the biological sciences. • Ecology, fully emerged from its roots in the biological sciences (1970) • Ecology as the study of Earth as home. • Bridge between science and society (the third culture)

  8. Preface (IV) • Complexity: the bigger picture (Vicsek, 2002) • The laws that describe the behavior of a complex system are qualitatively different from those that govern its units. • Fundamentals of Ecology emphasis on macroevolution as an extension of traditional evolutionary theory and on self-regulation theory in the development and regulation of complex system.

  9. Eugene Odum • Eugene Odum (1913-2002), American scientist, pioneering work on ecosystem ecology • Son of the sociologist, Howard W. Odum, and brother of Howard T. Odum, E.P Odum credited his father for imparting to him a holistic approach to looking at things.

  10. Dr. Eugene OdumFather of Modern Ecology • In early August Eugene Odum passed away at the age of 88, and the world lost one of the most influential figures in the field of ecology. • Dr. Odum has been dubbed “the father of modern ecology” and is credited with pioneering the concept of the ecosystem. • His textbook Fundamentals of Ecology, published in 1953, was the catalyst that changed ecology from the study of the microcosm to the study of the macrocosm. Former President Jimmy Carter said, “The work of Dr. Odum changed the way we look at the natural world and our place in it.” Carol Greenberger

  11. 100萬美元基金 • After he died, Odum's will stipulated that his 26-acres on the Middle Oconee River in Athens, Ga. would be sold, and developed according to plans he laid out before his death. The plans included that over 50 percent of the property would be protected greenspace and walking trails, managed by the Oconee River Land Trust. • Profits from the sale of the land would go to the Eugene and William Odum Ecology Fund, after $1 million is set aside for a professorial chair at UGA in Odum's name. • Odum School of Ecology, The University of Georgia

  12. Books and an article • Fundamentals of Ecology (with Howard Odum) • Ecology • Basic Ecology • Ecology and Our Endangered Life Support Systems • Ecological Vignettes: Ecological Approaches to Dealing with Human Predicament • The Strategy of Ecosystem Development Eugene P. Odum

  13. Fundamentals of Ecology • The Scope of Ecology • The Ecosystem • Energy in Ecological systems • Biogeochemical Cycles • Limiting and Regulatory Factors • Population Ecology • Ecosystem Development

  14. Fundamentals of Ecology • Ecosystem Development • Landscape Ecology • Regional Ecology: Major Ecosystem Types and Biomes • Global Ecology • Statistical Thinking for Students of Ecology • Glossary • References • Credits • index

  15. Odum, E. P. (1997) Ecology: A bridge between science and society. Sinauer Associates, Inc. • Odum, E. P. (1993) Ecology and our endangered life-support systems. 2nd ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc. • 王瑞香 (2000譯)生態學:科學與社會之間的橋樑 (原著:E. P. Odum)。啟英文化事業:(02)2929-8147。

  16. Prologue:The Flight of Apollo 13 • 預定1970年4月14日晚上七點降落在月球Fra Mauro的Apollo 13號,並沒有降落。 • 因為當太空船接近月球時,一件小爆炸事故摧毀了他的主要維生系統。 • 於是登月小艇不得不臨時被當作救生船使用,以便將太空人安全送返地球。 • 從接近月球的太空,返回地球需要3天。

  17. Apollo 任務 • Apollo 13的航程為期10天,3天去程,3天回程,4天環繞月球運行。 • 於繞行月球的4天內,登月艇將降落月球,並停留33小時。於此33小時間,還計畫兩趟4至5個小時的漫步,並鑽探月球的岩石。 • Apollo 13於1970年4月11日發射升空,這是Apollo月球航行任務的第五次。 • 1968年春,Apollo 11登月艇成功的降落在月球,Neil Amstrong 成為第一位於月球漫步的人類。1969年秋,Apollo 12第二次成功的登陸月球。

  18. 圖1. 從月球看地球。地球是一個多水的行星。(Apollo 12 於月球拍攝的照片)。

  19. Apollo 13的航行 • 太空船:由三個單元組成 • (1) 儲備艙(service module) • (2) 指揮艙(command module) (Odyssey) • (3) 登月艇(the lunar landing module) (Aquarius) • 4月11日早晨升空航向月球,連續三天,一切都正常良好。 • 4月13日晚上10點08分,當太空船靠近月球時,儲備艙發生小爆炸。

  20. 圖2.阿波羅13號。因為氧氣筒爆炸而毀壞指揮艙的維生體系時,三個太空人必須擠進登月艇中,以求生存。圖2.阿波羅13號。因為氧氣筒爆炸而毀壞指揮艙的維生體系時,三個太空人必須擠進登月艇中,以求生存。

  21. The explosion • 儲備艙的兩個氧氣筒,其中之一的氣壓遽然下降到零,另一個也開始下降。需要氧氣來產生電力的三個燃料箱之中有兩個也迅速失靈。 • 此時,探月的任務取消,開始進行救援。 • 兩個太空人被迫進入登月艇,打開登月艇的獨立電力與氧氣系統。一個太空人留在指揮艙,透過一條管子,吸著來自登月艇的氧氣。且臨時加裝一條延長線,從登月艇引進電力。 • 太空船的推動力,就只有登月艇的火箭引擎。

  22. 回程的3天行程中 • 太空船艙內的溫度幾乎以降到冰點。 • 登月艇內二氧化碳濃度已達到危險濃度。 • 累積的尿液也成為問題。 • 盡量節省電力,使太空船飛抵地球大氣層時,還有足夠電力讓指揮艙內的電池充電,使其可以再度使用。然後,拋棄儲備艙和登月艇,指揮艙降落太平洋。

  23. 附加的問題:放射性的污染 • 原先要留在月球上運轉實驗器材的鈽(有8磅),因為沒有登上月球,而隨著登月艇帶回地球。最後是拋棄進入太平洋了事。 • 這是Apollo 13在太平洋深處,留下的一個放射性紀念品。

  24. Spacecraft vs. Earth 維生體系 • 太空船的維生系統是機械式控制的貯藏系統。維生必需品是產自地球,在貯藏於太空船內。 • 地球的維生體系是生物再生性( bioregenerative) 的體系,其內的動物、植物和微生物可以再生,再循環並提供生命的必需品。 • 地球的維生體系並不是人類所創造的,我們對整個體系的了解,仍是相當的有限。 • 我們現在還是需要仰賴連接地球的臍帶,才有辦法進入太空中建立大型的太空站。 • Biosphere 2 研究計劃,這是建立可再生體系的試驗。

  25. 人在圖框內,看不到圖畫 • 人在樹林中,只能看到樹木,沒有看到森林的全貌。 • 於1968-70年間,太空人將從太空拍攝地球的照片傳回地球,人類首次得以走到畫框外面而看到整個地球。 • 結果,1970年人們發起地球日(Earth day)。許多環保法令陸續頒布,關心全球環境的輿論興起,以及提出環境影響評估的要求。 • 1980年代,環保議題因為人們對犯罪、冷戰、政府預算、社會福利等的關注,而退到政治的邊陲地區。

  26. 生態環保的議題 • 於1990年代,能源的問題,特別是對全球的議題又再度引起關注。 • 踏入21世紀,生態環保的議題,將再度成為大家關注的焦點。 • 但這一次,我們對環保的議題,強調的已經不是治療,而是如何的去防治。

  27. Chap. 1 The Scope of Ecology 鄭先祐 (Ayo) 國立台南大學 環境生態學院

  28. The scope of ecology • Ecology: History and relevance to humankind • Levels-of-Organization Hierarchy • The emergent property principle • Transcending functions and control processes • Ecological interfacing • About models • Disciplinary reductionism to trans disciplinary holism

  29. 1 Ecology: History and Relevance to Mankind • Ecology (生態學) = eco + logy • Eco = household (house, home) • Ecology = the study of “life at home” • Economics (經濟學) = eco + nomics • nomics = management

  30. 經濟學 vs.生態學

  31. 歷史的演變 • Ecology was of practical interest early in human history. • 農業之前,狩獵採集,適應自然環境的生活方式,「生態學」是必要的基本知識。 • 農業開始,踏上改造環境的生活方式。因為分工社會化,technological achievements 讓人們逐漸遠離自然環境。

  32. 2. level-of-organization hierarchy • Fig. 1-2 Ecological level-of-organization spectrum . • Fig. 1-3 Ecological level-od organization hierarchy; seven transcending processes or functions are depicted as vertical components of eleven integrative levels of organization. • Fig. 1-4 Compared with the strong set-point controls at the organism level and below, organization and function at the population level and above.

  33. Fig. 1-2. Ecological levels-of-organization spectrum emphasizing the interaction of living and nonliving components.

  34. 生命世界的組成架構-- 是無法切割的。-- 非「of、by、for」某個學科

  35. Fig. 1-3 Ecological levels-of-organization hierarchy; seven transcending processes or functions are depicted as vertical components of eleven integrative levels of organization. 7-11

  36. 生命科學的時間與空間的範圍基本資料取自Kohn (1989), p.1096。

  37. Fig. 1-4 Compared with the strong set-point controls at the organism level and below, organization and function at the population level and above.

  38. 3 the emergent property principle • Emergent property • Nonreducible + Collective properties • 1. Reductionism (化約) • 2. Holistism (整合)

  39. 4 transcending functions and control processes • 有七項具有 transcending functions (超越功能) • Behavior, development, diversity, energetics, evolution, integration, and regulation (Fig. 1-3) • Homeostasis (set point) vs. homeorhesis (pulsing control) • Pulsing balances

  40. 5. Ecological interfacing • Interface fields: • Ecological economics, Agroecology, Biodiversity, Conservation ecology, Ecological engineering, Ecosystem health, Ecotoxicology, Environmental ethics, and Restoration ecology. • Natural capital: • goods and services, 16-54 trillion 美元每年 • Economic capital:

  41. 6 about models • A model is a formulation that mimics a real-world phenomenon. • Computer-simulated models permit one to predict probable outcomes as parameters in the model are changed. • Symbols: • E= energy source (forcing function) • P= state variables • F= flow pathways • I=interaction functions

  42. F= flow pathways L= feedback loop Fig. 1-6 Compartment diagram showing the five basic components of primary interest in modeling ecological systems.

  43. Fig. 1-6 Compartment model with a feedback or control loop that transforms a linear system into a partially cyclical one.

  44. 隔離 Fig. 1-7 Interaction of positive and negative feedbacks in the relationships of atmospheric CO2, climate warming, soil respiration, and carbon sequestration.

  45. Fig 1-8. The H. T. Odum energy language symbols used in model diagrams.

  46. Fig. 1-9 Ecosystem model using energy language symbols and including estimated rates of energy flow for a Florida pine forest.

  47. 7 Disciplinary reductionism to transdisciplinary holism • Fig. 1-10 Progression of relation among disciplines from disciplinary reductionism to transdisciplinary holism. • disciplinary → multidisciplinary • → crossdisciplinary → interdisciplinary • → transdisciplinary

  48. Fig. 1-10 Progression of relation among disciplines from disciplinary reductionism to transdisciplinary holism.

  49. Fig. 1-10 Progression of relation among disciplines from disciplinary reductionism to transdisciplinary holism.

  50. Fig. 1-10 Progression of relation among disciplines from disciplinary reductionism to transdisciplinary holism.