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LEADERSHIP. Chapter 11. Leadership Matters…. Intellectually historically, psychologically, sociologically Politically societally, culturally, globally, communally, & perhaps idealistically Practically productively, economically, idealistically Personally

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Chapter 11

leadership matters
Leadership Matters….
  • Intellectually
    • historically, psychologically, sociologically
  • Politically
    • societally, culturally, globally, communally, & perhaps idealistically
  • Practically
    • productively, economically, idealistically
  • Personally
    • interpersonally, ethically, selfishly
  • Scientifically
    • empirically, conceptually
what is leadership
What is Leadership ?
  • “The process of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement” (Stogdill, 1950, p. 3)
  • Three key components to this definition:
  • - an interpersonal process between one person and a group
  • - can’t have ‘leaders’ without ‘followers’
  • - criterion for effective leadership = goal achievement
what is leadership4
What is Leadership?
  • Leadership: guidance of others in their pursuits, often by organizing, directing, coordinating, supporting, and motivating their efforts.
    • Reciprocal
    • Transactional
    • Transformational
    • Cooperative
    • Adaptive
leadership myths
Leadership Myths?
  • Leadership is power (with people rather than over people)
  • Leaders are born (but leaders are also “made”)
  • All groups have leaders (large groups tend to require a leader)
  • People resist their leaders (most groups accept the need for a leader)
leadership myths cont
Leadership myths (cont.)
  • Leaders make or break their groups
    • The “romance of leadership” exaggerates the impact of a leader
    • Leaders do make a difference (e.g., sports teams)
who will lead
Who Will Lead?
  • Perspectives on leadership emergence
    • Trait Model: The great leader theory
    • Situational Model
    • Interactional Model: depends on the leader, followers, and the group situation.
the great man theory
The Great Man Theory
  • Early explanations of leadership studied the “traits” of great leaders
    • “Great man” theories (Gandhi, Lincoln, Napoleon)
    • Belief that people were born with these traits and only the great people possessed them
the great man theory9
The Great Man Theory
  • Personal qualities of leaders
    • Personality traits, such as extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness.
    • Intelligence and emotional intelligence (degree of social skill).
    • Expertise, skill, and experience.
    • Level of participation in discussion: the “babble effect.”
who will lead cont
Who Will Lead? (cont)
  • Demographic background of leaders
    • Height, weight, & age
    • Ethnicity
    • Sex: Bias against women (even thought women possess more skills needed to be a successful leader).
      • Implicit leadership theories (ILTs): members general beliefs about the qualities of leaders
      • Eagly’s social role theory: ILTs are not consistent with intuitive expectations about men & women: “think leader, think male”
contingency approaches
Contingency Approaches

Contingency approaches: approaches that seek to delineate the characteristics of situations and followers and examine the leadership styles that can be used effectively

Fiedler’s contingency model: a model designed to diagnose whether a leader is task-oriented or relationship-oriented and match leader style to the situation

contingency theory fiedler 1978
Contingency Theory (Fiedler 1978)
  • Leadership effectiveness is determined by the interaction between the leader's personal characteristics and the characteristics of the situation
  • Leaders are classified as person‑oriented or task‑oriented (which type will be more effective depends on the leader's degree of situational control)
  • Control depends on relationship between leader/followers, the degree of task structure, and the leader's authority (position power)
the lpc scale
The LPC Scale




  • Least Preferred Coworker Scale, or LPC scale.
  • “Think of the person whom you least like to work with”
lpc scale
LPC Scale
  • He or she may be someone you work with now or someone you knew in the past. This coworker does not have to be the person you like least but should be the person with whom you had the most difficulty in getting a job done.
fiedler s contingency theory

In moderate situations, correlation between LPC & Effectiveness is POSITIVE

In highly favorable/ unfavorable situations, correlation between LPC & Effectiveness is NEGATIVE

Fiedler’s Contingency Theory

LPC Scale

  • High LPC leaders most effective in “moderately” favorable situations
  • Low LPC leaders most effective in very favorable or very unfavorable situations
contingency theory fiedler 197816
Contingency Theory (Fiedler 1978)
  • The task‑oriented leader will be effective in extremely favorable or extremely unfavorable situations
  • The person‑oriented leader will be more effective in moderately favorable situations
  • Criticisms include most of research was in the lab
path goal theory house 1971
Path‑Goal Theory (House 1971)
  • Path‑goal theory focuses on the kinds of leader behaviors that allow subordinates to achieve personal and organizational goals
  • Four leadership styles can be adopted to facilitate employee attainment of goals
    • Directive
    • Supportive
    • Participative
    • Achievement‑oriented
path goal situations and preferred leader behaviors
Path-Goal Situations and Preferred Leader Behaviors

Leader Behavior

Impact on Follower



Supportive Leadership

Followers lack self-confidence

Increases confidence to achieve work outcomes

Directive Leadership

Increased effort; improved satisfaction and performance

Ambiguous job

Clarifies path to reward

Achievement-Oriented Leadership

Lack of job


Set and strive for high goals

Participative Leadership

Clarifies followers’ needs to change rewards



path goal theory house 197119
Path‑Goal Theory (House 1971)
  • The most effective leadership style depends on the situation and the characteristics of the subordinates
  • Requires leader flexibility
  • Directive style works best with unskilled workers
  • Supportive leadership works best with highly skilled workers
  • Theory is difficult to test and operationalize
situational theory hersey and blanchard 1978
Situational Theory - Hersey and Blanchard (1978)
  • Effectiveness depends on the leader's task and relationship behaviors.
  • The Leadership Grid: Blake & Mouton assume that people vary in their concern for others and in their concern for results and that individuals who are high on both dimensions (9,9) are the best leaders.
  • Hersey and Blanchard’s extension of the Leadership Grid focusing on the characteristics of followers as the important element of the situation, and consequently, of determining effective leader behavior.
  • Hersey and Blanchard suggest that groups benefit from leadership that meshes with the developmental stage of the group.
hersey and blanchard s situational theory of leadership
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory of Leadership

Follower Characteristics

Appropriate Leader Style

Telling (high task-low relationship)

Low readiness level

Moderate readiness level

High readiness level

Very high readiness level

Selling (high task-high relationship)

Participating (low task-high rel.)

Delegating (low task-low relationship)

leader member exchange theory lmx graen schlieman 1978
Leader‑Member Exchange Theory (LMX) (Graen & Schlieman 1978)
  • Leader‑member exchange theory (LMX) focuses on how the leader‑follower relationship affects the leadership process
  • Subordinates are of two types: "in‑group" and "out‑group"
  • In‑group employees are viewed by the leader as competent, trustworthy, and highly motivated
  • Out‑group employees are viewed as incompetent, untrustworthy, and poorly motivated
leader member exchange theory lmx graen schlieman 197823
Leader‑Member Exchange Theory (LMX) (Graen & Schlieman 1978)
  • Two leadership styles: supervision (based on formal authority) and leadership (based on persuasion)
  • Leaders use supervision with out‑group employees, and leadership with in‑group members
  • Leaders and in‑group members establish personal relationships leading to mutual support and understanding
  • High‑LMX relationship groups tends to outperform low‑LMX relationship groups
transactional vs transformational leaders
Transactional vs. Transformational Leaders
  • Transactional leaders focus on the social interactions between leaders and followers
  • It is based on followers' perceptions of and expectations about the leaders abilities
  • The behavior of transactional leaders depends on what their followers think of them
transformational leaders
Transformational Leaders
  • Transformational leaders are not constrained by their followers' perceptions but are free to act to transform (change) their followers' views
  • They challenge and inspire with a sense of purpose and excitement
  • They create a vision and communicate it while accepting feedback and suggestions
elements of transformational leadership
Elements of Transformational Leadership


a Strategic



the Vision






the Vision

transformational leaders29
Transformational Leaders…
  • Do not accept the status quo
  • Create a graphic and compelling vision of the future
  • Act as role models
  • Are often referred to as “tough”
  • Energise and inspire others
  • Are said to be “charismatic”
  • Are very instrumental in times of turbulence / crises
  • Provide sense of individual consideration
  • Provide stimulation (intellectual and emotional)
  • (James MacGregor Burns, 1978)
what do you think are the key qualities of effective leaders
What do you think are the key qualities of effective leaders?
  • 1. _____________________________
  • 2. _____________________________
  • 3. _____________________________
  • 4. _____________________________
  • 5. _____________________________
leadership styles
Leadership Styles
  • Authoritarian leadership results when leaders make all the decisions and tell followers what to do
  • Authoritarian leadership works best when situations require rapid and efficient job performance
    • Group performance suffers when leader is under stress
  • Democratic leadership results when leaders and followers discuss problems and make decisions jointly
authentic leadership
Authentic Leadership
  • Owning one’s own personal experiences (values, thoughts, emotions and beliefs) and acting in accordance with one’s true self”
  • Leader-follower relationships characterised by:
    • transparency, openness & trust
    • guidance towards worthy objectives
    • emphasis on follower development (William Gardiner et al, 2005)
moral leadership
Moral Leadership
  • “As a concept, leadership should mean a set of values dedicated to promoting human development for the common good of people in a democratic environment, both at the national and international levels” (Adel Safty, 2003)
  • “The modern leader is willing to take responsibility without waiting for a request or bureaucratic permission” (Ronald Heifertz, 2003)
leadership gender differences
Leadership & Gender Differences
  • Sex differences in leadership effectiveness:
    • Women tend to adopt participative and transformational styles of leadership
    • Men are more likely to enact autocratic, laissez-faire, and transactional styles.
leadership and emotions
Leadership and Emotions
  • “An emotionally intelligent leader can monitor his or her moods through self-awareness, change them for the better through self-management, understand their impact through empathy, and act in ways that boost others’ moods through relationship management” (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, 2001)
distributed leadership
Distributed Leadership
  • “In the twenty-first century organization, we need to establish communities where everyone shares the experience of serving as a leader, not sequentially, but concurrently and collectively. These I call leaderful organizations.” (Joseph Raelin, 2003, p. xi)
  • “The model makes the case for the end of leadership as we commonly know it—that is, rank-based management—and introduces a method for developing an organisation into a true society of peers. I call this model the peer-based organization”. (Jeffrey Nielsen, 2004, p. x)
level 5 leadership hierarchy
Level 5 Leadership Hierarchy
  • Level 5: Executive builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will
  • Level 4: Effective Leader catalyses commitment to vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision, stimulating higher performance standards
  • Level 3: Competent Manager organises people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives
  • Level 2: Contributing Team Member contributes individual capabilities to the achievement of group objectives and works effectively with others in a group setting
  • Level 1: Highly Capable Individual makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills and good work habits (Jim Collins, 2001, Good to Great)