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KS3 Chemistry. 9E Metals and Metal Compounds . Contents. 9E Metals and Metal Compounds. Metals and non-metals. Metals and acids. Metal compounds and acids. Symbol equations. Summary activities. Metal or non-metal?. magnesium (Mg). phosphorus (P). sulfur (S). H. He.

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ks3 chemistry

KS3 Chemistry

9E Metals and Metal Compounds

contents
Contents

9E Metals and Metal Compounds

Metals and non-metals

Metals and acids

Metal compounds and acids

Symbol equations

Summary activities

metal or non metal
Metal or non-metal?

magnesium (Mg)

phosphorus (P)

sulfur (S)

H

He

copper (Cu)

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

iodine (I)

iron (Fe)

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

?

?

?

antimony (Sb)

Is this element a or a ?

metal

non-metal

Hard to say!

Mg

Mg

P

S

S

P

Fe

Cu

Fe

Cu

Sb

I

I

Sb

metals and non metals in the periodic table
Metals and non-metals in the periodic table

The periodic table is a list of all the known elements which are arranged according to the similarities in their properties.

Non-metals are mostly on the right.

Metals are on the

left and in the centre.

Xe

What type of elements are between metals and non-metals?

metal non metal or metalloid
Metal, non-metal or metalloid?

H

He

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

?

?

?

francium (Fr)

krypton (Kr)

silicon (Si)

scandium (Sc)

cobalt (Co)

metalloid

non-metal

metal

metal

metal

Which side are the non-metals on?

Which side are the metals on?

What are

metalloids?

Metals are on the left and in the centre.

Metalloids sometimes behave like metals and

sometimes like non-metals.

Non-metals are mostly

on the right.

what are the properties of metals
What are the properties of metals?

malleable

(easy to bend)

shiny

solid

sonorous

(makes a sound)

good conductor of electricity

Properties of metals

dense

strong

high melting point

good conductor of heat

ductile

(can be drawn into wires)

high boiling point

Do all metals have these properties?

using metals
Using metals

Can all metals do the same job?.

contents12
Contents

9E Metals and Metal Compounds

Metals and non-metals

Metals and acids

Metal compounds and acids

Symbol equations

Summary activities

reaction of metals with acids
Reaction of metals with acids

Many metals react with acids. When this happens the metal fizzes as bubbles are produced.

hydrogen

burning splint

What do the bubbles mean?

magnesium + acid

A gas is produced.

How can you test to find out if the gas produced is hydrogen?

Place a burning splint next to the mouth of test tube.

A ‘squeaky pop’ as the gas ignites shows that hydrogen is the gas produced in this reaction.

reaction of metals with acids14
Reaction of metals with acids

When a metalreacts with an acid, the products are a salt and hydrogen gas.

metal

nitric acid

sulfuric

acid

hydrochloric acid

acid

metal

nitrate

metal sulfate

metal

chloride

salt

hydrogen

The salt produced depends on the metal and type of acid involved in the reaction:

  • When a metal reacts with hydrochloric acid, the salt produced is a metalchloride.
  • When a metal reacts with sulfuric acid, the salt produced is a metal sulfate.
  • When a metal reacts with nitric acid, the salt produced is a metal nitrate.
complete the word equations
Complete the word equations

Complete the word equations for metals reacting with acid:

magnesium

?

nitric acid

magnesium nitrate

hydrogen

iron

sulfuric acid

?

hydrogen

iron sulfate

zinc

hydrochloric acid

?

zinc chloride

hydrogen

lead

?

?

sulfuric acid

lead sulfate

hydrogen

reactivity of metals
Reactivity of metals

Some metals react more vigorously with acids than others.

Metals can be listed in order of how reactive they are.

This list is called the reactivity series.

potassium

sodium

calcium

magnesium

aluminium

zinc

iron

lead

(hydrogen)

copper

silver

gold

  • The more reactive the metal, the more vigorous the reaction.

increasing reactivity

  • A metal that is below hydrogen will not react with dilute acids.
contents17
Contents

9E Metals and Metal Compounds

Metals and non-metals

Metals and acids

Metal compounds and acids

Symbol equations

Summary activities

reaction of metal carbonates with acids
Reaction of metal carbonates with acids

When a metal carbonate reacts with an acid, it fizzes giving off carbon dioxide gas.

Carbon dioxide can be tested for using the limewater test.

When carbon dioxide gas is bubbled through limewater, it turns the limewater cloudy or milky white.

Most metal carbonates are not very soluble and so the reactions may be slow.

reaction of metal carbonates with acids19
Reaction of metal carbonates with acids

When a metalcarbonate reacts with an acid, the products are a salt, carbon dioxide and water.

nitric acid

metal nitrate

salt

metal chloride

metal sulfate

metal carbonate

water

acid

sulfuric

acid

hydrochloricacid

carbon dioxide

The salt produced depends on the metal carbonate and type of acid involved in the reaction:

  • When a metal carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid, the salt produced is a metal chloride.
  • When a metal carbonate reacts with sulfuric acid, the salt produced is a metal sulfate.
  • When a metal carbonate reacts with nitric acid, the salt produced is a metal nitrate.
complete the word equations20
Complete the word equations

metal carbonate

acid

salt

carbon dioxide

water

Complete the word equation for each reaction between a metal carbonates and an acid:

sodium carbonate

?

nitric

acid

sodium nitrate

?

carbon dioxide

water

?

calcium carbonate

nitric

acid

calcium nitrate

carbon dioxide

water

zinc carbonate

sulfuric acid

zinc sulfate

?

?

carbon dioxide

water

?

reaction of metal oxides with acids
Reaction of metal oxides with acids

When a metal oxide reacts with an acid, the products are a salt and water.

metal oxide

acid

salt

water

A metal oxide is a type of chemical called a base.

Bases are chemicals that react with an acid to produce a salt and water.

A base that is soluble in water is called an alkali.

Using the products as a clue,whatisthereactionbetween a base (such as a metal oxide) and an acid called?

neutralization

complete the word equations22
Complete the word equations

metal oxide

acid

salt

water

Complete the word equation for each reaction between a metal oxide and an acid:

?

magnesium oxide

nitric acid

magnesium nitrate

?

water

zinc

sulfate

?

zinc oxide

sulfuric acid

?

water

iron oxide

hydrochloric acid

iron chloride

?

water

?

contents23
Contents

9E Metals and Metal Compounds

Metals and non-metals

Metals and acids

Metal compounds and acids

Symbol equations

Summary activities

chemical formulae what is the ratio of atoms
Chemical formulae – what is the ratio of atoms?

The name of a chemical can also be written as a formula.

A formula uses chemical symbols and numbers to show the ratio of atoms of each element present in the chemical.

Name of salt

Formula

Ratio of atoms in salt

calciumchloride

CaCl2

Ca

Cl

2

1

sodiumsulphate

Na2SO4

Na

S

O

1

2

4

magnesiumsulphate

MgSO4

Mg

S

O

1

4

1

magnesiumnitrate

Mg(NO3)2

Mg

N

O

2

6

1

calciumsulphate

CaSO4

Ca

S

O

1

4

1

what is the ratio of atoms in each salt
What is the ratio of atoms in each salt?

What is the ratio of atoms in each salt?

Name of salt

Formula

Ratio of atoms in salt

NaCl

sodiumchloride

1 Na

1 Cl

magnesiumchloride

MgCl2

1 Mg

2 Cl

potassiumnitrate

KNO3

1 K

1 N

3 O

K2SO4

potassiumsulphate

2 K

4 O

1 S

Ca(NO3)2

calciumnitrate

1 Ca

6 O

2 N

writing equations using chemical formulae
Writing equations using chemical formulae

zinc

hydrochloric acid

zinc chloride

hydrogen

The names of chemicals in a word equation can be replaced with chemical formulae.

When a chemical reaction is written using chemical formulae, the equation must be balanced.

Zn + HCl → ZnCl2+ H2

2

1 Zn

1 H, 1 Cl

2 H, 2 Cl

1 Zn, 2 Cl

2 H

  • Write down the formula for each chemical.
  • Count the number of atoms on each side of the equation.
  • Where needed, adjust the numbers in front of the formula

so that the numbers of atoms on each side are balanced.

writing and balancing chemical equations
Writing and balancing chemical equations

Pb + HCl → PbCl2 + H2

2

Ca + HCl → CaCl2 + H2

2

Use chemical formulae to write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between lead and hydrochloric acid.

lead

hydrochloric acid

lead chloride

hydrogen

Use chemical formulae towrite a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between calcium oxide and hydrochloric acid.

calcium

hydrochloric acid

calcium chloride

hydrogen

contents29
Contents

9E Metals and Metal Compounds

Metals and non-metals

Metals and acids

Metal compounds and acids

Symbol equations

Summary activities

glossary
Glossary

alkali – A soluble base.

base –A compound (such as a metal oxide) that reacts

with an acid to produce a salt and water.

conductor –A material that allows heat and electricity

to travel through it easily.

malleable –A material that can be hammered into shape.

metal –An element found on the left of the periodic table which is usually hard, shiny and a good conductor.

metal carbonate –A compound made of a metal, carbon and oxygen. It reacts with acid to produce a salt, carbon dioxide and water.

metal oxide –A compound made of a metal and oxygen.

It reacts with acid to produce a salt and water.

property –A characteristic of a material.