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Judicial Review and Chief Justice John Marshall. Presentation by Robert L. Martinez Primary Content Source: The New Nation by Joy Hakim. Images as cited. http://www.flickr.com/photos/leonandloisphotos/2959538987/. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/images/sc/004_marshall.jpg.

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judicial review and chief justice john marshall

Judicial Reviewand Chief Justice John Marshall

Presentation by Robert L. Martinez

Primary Content Source: The New Nation by Joy Hakim.

Images as cited.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/leonandloisphotos/2959538987/

http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/images/sc/004_marshall.jpg

slide2
In 1799, John Marshall was elected to Congress. The following year, President Adams named him secretary of state. The year after that he became chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.

President

John Adams

http://www.runet.edu/~wkovarik/class/images/john-adams.jpg

slide3
The Supreme Court met in the basement of the Capitol, because although a site for the Court had been planned, nothing had been built there yet.

Original Supreme Court

Chamber in lower level

of Capitol building.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/brent_nashville/104105082/

slide4
But fancy rooms weren’t any more important to John Marshall than fancy clothes. What he cared about was the way the United States was governed.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/mbell1975/3319821924/

slide5
Marshall believed that a strong government would help protect the rights of all people. He tried to make the federal government stronger than the state governments.

http://www.supremecourtus.gov/images/photo17.jpg

http://www.clipartof.com/images/thumbnail/16639.jpg

slide6
In 1803, in a very important Supreme Court case called Marbury v. Madison, Marshall said the Court could throw out any law passed by Congress if the Court thought that law was unconstitutional.

http://www.east-buc.k12.ia.us/02_03/AG/mar/am1.jpg

slide7
Marbury v. Madison began a process called “judicial review.” It gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if a law passed by Congress meets the requirements of the Constitution.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/bellamist/2289780389/

slide8
Imagine that tomorrow Congress passed a law saying you can’t criticize the president. Suppose your mother does that and she goes to jail. That actually happens in some countries.

http://www.gelber.net/WF24/alcatraz/aLCATRAZ_JAIL_CELL.jpg

slide9
In those countries people are even afraid to talk to their friends. It happened here in 1798 with the Sedition Acts.

http://www.historycentral.com/NN/alien.jpg

slide10
Judicial Review helps guarantee our freedoms. Judicial Review made the Constitution stronger. It made the Court a real check and balance to the two other government branches.

http://www.tkdtutor.com/11Training/TrainingImages/StrongKid.jpg

slide11
Thomas Jefferson didn’t like the idea of judicial review. He thought it made the court too powerful.Supreme Court justices are appointed for life, not elected.

http://www.libertarianz.org.nz/images/heroes/jefferson.jpg

slide12
Marshall and Jefferson couldn’t stand each other. Their dispute was all about ideas. Here is a surprise, Marshall and Jefferson were also cousins.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10644/10644-h/Illus0371.jpg

slide13
When John Adams ran for a second term, he was defeated in 1800. Many people think it was because of his support of the Alien and Sedition Acts.

http://www.historycentral.com/elections/elects/1800.gif

http://i63.photobucket.com/albums/h155/jaspry/election1800.jpg

slide14
The election of 1800 was a tie. Democratic Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr each got 73 electoral votes (Adams 65). It was up to the House of Representatives to break the tie.

http://www.fairvote.org/e_college/jefferson.gif

slide15
After an all-night session and 36 ballots they were still deadlocked. Alexander Hamilton persuaded some Federalists that a vote for Jefferson was “the lesser evil.”

http://www.constitution.org/img/alexander_hamilton_1792.jpg

slide16
Jefferson became president and Burr the vice-president. Burr would hold a grudge against Hamilton. That messy election led to the passage, in 1804, of the 12th amendment.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/max_blm/2153343404/

slide17
The 12th amendment calls for separate ballots for president and vice president.

http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/doc-content/images/12th-amendment-l.jpg