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OBJECTIVE. TLW: define asexual reproduction and distinguish between the various forms with 100% participation. Warm-Up. How do prokaryotic cells replicate? Binary Fission c. Meiosis Mitosis d. Fertilization In a budding organism, a child starts out as ? an egg c. a growth

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OBJECTIVE


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    1. OBJECTIVE TLW: define asexual reproduction and distinguish between the various forms with 100% participation Created by N. Davis

    2. Warm-Up How do prokaryotic cells replicate? • Binary Fission c. Meiosis • Mitosis d. Fertilization In a budding organism, a child starts out as ? • an egg c. a growth • a sperm d. a zygote Which is not a form of asexual reproduction? • Mitosis c. regeneration • Binary fission d. None of the above Created by N. Davis

    3. Asexual Reproduction Definition: a type of reproduction in which a new organism is produced from one parent and has DNA identical to the parent organism. (genetically identical; clones) Examples: • Budding: a new organism starts as a growth on the parent and eventually separates from the body of the parent becoming an independent organism. (i.e. yeast, potato, hydra) • Binary Fission: only occurs in prokaryotic organisms, such as bacteria; occurs when one cell divides into two independent daughter cells. • Regeneration: a new organism grows from a piece of the parent organism as the parent produces new growth at the site of a wound or lost limb.(i.e. starfish, worms) • Mitosis: many single-celled eukaryotic organisms utilize this form of cell division to reproduce. (i.e. amoeba, paramecium, yeast, and algae) Created by N. Davis

    4. Comparing Asexual & Sexual Reproduction Created by N. Davis

    5. OBJECTIVE TLW: distinguish between asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction with 100% participation Created by N. Davis

    6. Types of Reproduction • Please take out your graphic organizer for the EduSmart lesson. Be sure to keep your eyes and ears OPEN! Pay attention. Created by N. Davis

    7. OBJECTIVE TLW: examine how genes are passed from parent to offspring with 100% participation. Created by N. Davis

    8. Genes & Heredity • Please take out your Note-taking Study Guide for the EduSmart lesson. Be sure to keep your eyes and ears OPEN! Pay attention. Created by N. Davis

    9. OBJECTIVE 3/5/2012 TLW: understand that traits can be inherited or acquired and that inherited traits can be dominant or recessive with 100% participation. Created by N. Davis

    10. Quickwrite (G/T) In your own words, explain the process of parthenogenesis and alternation of generation during reproduction. Created by N. Davis

    11. Warm Up:Comparing Asexual & Sexual Reproduction Created by N. Davis

    12. Traits Traits are characteristic of an individual PARENTS AND OFFSPRING ARE SIMILAR Many traits are inherited Some traits are acquired (learned) Ex. of inherited traits are eye color, hair color, & blood type Ex. of acquired traits are reading, writing, walking, etc. Created by N. Davis

    13. Key Terms • Sexual reproduction: type of reproduction in which the genetic material from the father and the genetic material from the mother combine to form a completely new cell, the offspring. • Gene: unit of heredity that occupies a specific location on an chromosome and codes for a particular product. • Heredity: the passing of genes from parent to offspring. Created by N. Davis

    14. Genes Passed from parent to offspring located on a homolog Located on a chromosome homologs are same size & shape Unit of heredity homologs are chromosomes in a pair ** “Homo” means same ** Created by N. Davis

    15. Alleles Alternate forms of genes can be dominant or recessive Many for a particular gene on a homolog Represent traits have 2 alleles of each gene Created by N. Davis

    16. Chromosomes A A B B C C D D E E F F G G H h • Come in pairs; each member in the pair is called a homolog (same size & shape) A gene occupies a specific location on both chromosomes. Alleles are alternate forms of the same gene. Created by N. Davis

    17. Chromosomes • Each species have a characteristic # of chromosomes. • Humans have 23 pairs = 46 chromosomes. • Numbered 1-23 • 23rd pair are sex chromosomes • (X and Y) • Females have two X chromosomes (XX) • Males have a X and Y (XY) Created by N. Davis

    18. Alleles • Can determine your phenotype (physical appearance) and genotype (genetic makeup) • Based on coding for the genes, an allele can be • homozygousdominant [AA] (will be visible in phenotype; represented with a capital letter) • homozygousrecessive [aa](is ONLY visible when 2 copies of the allele are present; represented by a lowercase letter) • Heterozygous [Aa] (dominant trait is visible; but offspring contains one of each allele) Created by N. Davis

    19. OBJECTIVE 3/6/2012 TLW: examine the scientific contributions of Gregor Mendel in the field of genetics and heredity with 100% participation  Created by N. Davis

    20. Inherited or Acquired? Directions: identify each of the following traits as inherited or learned. • Young lion cubs learn hunting skills from adult lions. • Sally has blue eyes. • A cougar kills a zebra in the wild. • A dog can swim without being taught. • A baby kitten is black. Created by N. Davis

    21. “The Father of Genetics” • In the 1860s, an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel was the first to study heredity. • He was a botanist (studied plants) • Examine traits in pea plants Created by N. Davis

    22. Experiments • Performed two types: • True-breeding: plants ALWAYS produce same traits • Cross-breeding: plants produce new traits for offspring Created by N. Davis

    23. Experiments • Examined several traits in the pea plants • Height: Regular & Dwarf • Color: Yellow or Green • Shape: Round or Wrinkled Created by N. Davis

    24. Conclusions Based on information he gathered, Mendel proposed two laws • Law of Segregation • Law of Independent Assortment a.k.a. “Inheritance Law” Created by N. Davis

    25. LAW OF SEGREGATION • when an individual produces gametes, the copies of the genes separate so the gamete receives one copy (We get an allele from each parent; 1 from mom & 1 from dad) Created by N. Davis

    26. Law of Independent Assortment • states genes are inherited in random patterns; shows all possible outcomes an offspring may have. (Ex. Siblings w/ different hair, skin, & eye color) Created by N. Davis

    27. Punnett Squares To show the total possible outcomes for an offspring produced, geneticists use Punnett Squares. Dominant genes are CAPITALIZED Recessive genes are LOWERCASED Created by N. Davis

    28. Punnett Squares • Created by Reginald Punnett, an English geneticist • Can depict the number and variety of genetic combinations Created by N. Davis

    29. Punnett Squares • Used to show • Probability: the likelihood, or chance, of a specific outcome in relation to the total number of possible outcomes. • Ratio: comparison or relationship between two quantities. • Can be written as • #:# (1:4), fraction (1/4), or # to # (1 to 4) • Percentage: a ratio that compares a number to 100. Created by N. Davis

    30. Using the Punnett Square Parents: BB x bb BB Bb Bb Bb Bb Parent 1 Phenotype B = brown skin b = white skin b b Parent 2 Genotype BB = homozygous dominant Bb = heterozygous bb = homozygous recessive * Dominant genes always go in front of recessive genes Created by N. Davis

    31. OBJECTIVE TLW: demonstrate how punnett squares are used to predict patterns of heredity with ratios and percentage with 100% participation Created by N. Davis

    32. Phenotype Genotype Punnett Square Ratio Percentage Probability Likelihood of a specific outcome The genetic makeup of an organism A ratio comparing a number to 100 A table used to show the possible outcomes of offspring The observable characteristics of an organism A comparison between two quantities Warm UpMatch key terms with correct definitions Created by N. Davis

    33. Using Punnett Squares In dogs, wire hair (S) is dominant to smooth (s). In a cross of a homozygous wire-haired dog with a smooth-haired dog, what is the possible offspring produced? Genotype Ratio % Phenotype ratio % Created by N. Davis

    34. Using Punnett Squares Solution: In dogs, wire hair (S) is dominant to smooth (s). In a cross of a homozygous wire-haired dog with a smooth-haired dog, what is the possible offspring produced? S S Ss Ss Ss Ss Genotype Ratio % Phenotype ratio % s SS 0:4 0 wire 4:4 100 Ss 4:4 100 ss 0:4 0 smooth 0:4 0 s Created by N. Davis

    35. PROBLEM 2 Woodrats are medium sized rodents with lots of interesting behaviors. You may know of them as packrats. Let's assume that the trait of bringing home shiny objects (H) is controlled by a single locus gene and is dominant to the trait of carrying home only dull objects (h). Suppose two heterozygous individuals are crossed.What are the phenotypes & genotypes of the resulting offspring? Created by N. Davis

    36. PROBLEM 3 • The ability to curl your tongue up on the sides (T, tongue rolling) is dominant to not being able to roll your tongue. A woman who is heterozygous for tongue rolling marries a man who cannot. What are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring? Created by N. Davis

    37. PROBLEM 4 • In humans, brown eyes (B) are dominant over blue (b)*. A heterozygous brown-eyed man marries a homozygous dominant brown-eyed woman. What are the possible genotypes & phenotypes of the offspring? Created by N. Davis

    38. PROBLEM 5 • In summer squash, white fruit color (W) is dominant over yellow fruit color (w).  If a squash plant homozygous for white is crossed with a plant homozygous for yellow, what is the result? Created by N. Davis

    39. OBJECTIVE3/26/2012-3/28/2012 TLW: examine organisms or their structures such as insects or leaves and use dichotomous keys for identification with 100% participation Created by N. Davis

    40. OBJECTIVE3/29/2012 TLW: explain variation within a population or species by comparing external features, behaviors, or physiology of organisms that enhance their survival such as migration, hibernation, or storage of food in a bulb with 100% participation . Created by N. Davis

    41. Anticipation Guide 1.What might happen to animals if they didn’t have camouflage? • They would die quicker • They would lead longer lives • They would have access to more food. • They would be preyed on less often. 2.What does disruptive coloration do? • Make animals difficult to see at night • Make animals’distances difficult to judge • Make animals’ outlines difficult to judge • Make animals blend in with the plants 3.A bug that has the same coloration as the leaves it lives on is said to have: • Disruptive coloration • Protective coloration • Countershading • chromatophores Created by N. Davis

    42. OBJECTIVE3/30/2012 TLW: demonstrate comprehension of genetic variation by mastering an assessment with 85% accuracy. Created by N. Davis

    43. Directions • Remain quiet and clear your desk of everything with the EXCEPTION of a PENCIL for scantron • You will receive a cover sheet to be used AT ALL TIMES. • When completed, take test, cover sheet, and scantron to table and make 3 separate piles. • Pick up handout entitled “Variability and Survival”- this is due MONDAY, APRIL 2, 2012 Created by N. Davis

    44. OBJECTIVE04/02/2012 TLW: identify some changes in genetic traits that have occurred over several generations through natural selection and selective breeding such as the Galapagos Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) or domestic animals with 100% participation. Created by N. Davis

    45. Key Terms: Words to Know • Hybridization: a type of selective breeding in which two different breeds or species mate to produce offspring. (i.e. horse + donkey = mule) • Selective breeding: the process of breeding organisms with specific traits to influence those traits in following generations. • Variation: any difference between organisms of the same species • Adaptation: a change in a population that allows them to survive in a particular environment. • Inbreeding: a type of selective breeding in which two closely related organisms are bred. (i.e. ram + ewe [sheep] = lamb) Created by N. Davis

    46. EduSmart • Please take out your handout and place your name, date, and period in the top right corner. Be sure to keep your eyes and ears OPEN. Created by N. Davis

    47. OBJECTIVE04/03/2012-04/04/12 TLW: model evolution by natural selection of the gene frequency of two alleles in a population of organisms, calculate the gene frequency of the alleles for each generation, and graph the frequency of the two alleles over 5 generations. Created by N. Davis

    48. Anticipation Guide 1.What might happen to animals if they didn’t have camouflage? • They would die quicker • They would lead longer lives • They would have access to more food. • They would be preyed on less often. 2.What does disruptive coloration do? • Make animals difficult to see at night • Make animals’distances difficult to judge • Make animals’ outlines difficult to judge • Make animals blend in with the plants 3.A bug that has the same coloration as the leaves it lives on is said to have: • Disruptive coloration • Protective coloration • Countershading • chromatophores Created by N. Davis

    49. OBJECTIVE04/05/2012 TLW: observe how protective coloration helps some animals to survive in nature through modeling predatory behavior by feeding on toothpick prey items in an outdoor area with 100% participation. Created by N. Davis

    50. Mimicry Created by N. Davis