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Women ’ s Educational Attainment and Gender Empowerment in Uzbekistan. Kamila Khamidova firstname.lastname@example.org http://eagle1.american.edu/~kk1841a/ American University School of International Service SIS-600-5: Int'l Affairs Stats & Methods – Dr. Assen Assenov.
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Women’s Educational Attainment and Gender Empowerment in Uzbekistan Kamila Khamidova email@example.com http://eagle1.american.edu/~kk1841a/ American University School of International Service SIS-600-5: Int'l Affairs Stats & Methods – Dr. Assen Assenov
Research Question & Hypothesis Research Question: What is the impact of educational attainment on women’s empowerment in economic sphere in Uzbekistan? Research Hypothesis: Controlling for educational attainment, type of residence, religion, and ethnicity I expect women who attained higher level of education to be more empowered in economic sphere
Literature Review • Belinda Cooper and Isabel Traugottt (2003) “Women’s Rights and Security in Central Asia” • Theory: Worsening economic conditions have a negative impact on the position of women in Uzbekistan • Findings : • In Uzbekistan, as well as in other Central Asian countries women were the first to lose their jobs as the economy collapsed in early 1990’s • Economic necessity was found to be an important reason for the increasing marriages of fifteen-sixteen year old girls especially in rural areas • Wendy Mee (2001) “Women in the Republic of Uzbekistan” • Theory: Stereotypes about women’s role is a barrier to women who seek self-realization through professional development • Findings : • Employers prefer to hire men because hiring women is more expensive due to “special privileges”, such as maternity leave and paid vacation to take care of sick children guaranteed under the Labor Code • Due to a tight job market and fierce competition, men are given preference on the basis of gender ideology that sees men as the main provider for the family
Data • Source of the data: Uzbekistan Health Examination Survey 2002 • Fieldwork was conducted from September to December 2002. • Carried out by: Ministry of Health and Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics, Republic of Uzbekistan • Data provided by: Measure DHS: Demographic & Health Surveys • Reliability of the data: • nationally representative survey of 7,796 respondents • 5,463 women age 15-49 • 2,333 men age 15-59.
Data (cont) • Unit of Analysis: Individual • Dependent variable • Women’s Empowerment in Economic Sphere • Level of Measurement is nominal • Independent Variables • Educational Attainment (LOM is Nominal) • Type of Residence (LOM is Nominal) • Ethnicity (LOM is Nominal) • Religion (LOM is Nominal)
Descriptive Statistics (Dependent Variable) • Women’s Empowerment in Economic Sphere (Q: Who decides on woman’s work?) • Recoded : • 0= Respondent/Jointly; 1= Someone else • Unimodal; Mode= 0 Respondent; (52.97%) • Missing Data: 387 Responses out of 5,076
Bivariate Analysis Dependent Variable: Women’s Empowerment in Economic Sphere (Respondent/Jointly with someone else = 0; Someone else=1)
Probit Regression Analysis, Marginal EffectsThe Dependent Variable: Women’s Empowerment in Economic Sphere(Respondent/Jointly =0; Someone else =1)
Findings & Policy Implications • Findings: • Based on bivariate and probit analysis, religion had to be omitted, due to its statistical insignificance. • After omitting religion, I accept the research hypothesis that controlling for educational attainment, type of residence, ethnicity I expect women who attained higher level of education to be more empowered in economic sphere • Policy Implications • Efforts should be concentrated on increasing educational attainment of women • Public diplomacy efforts should be geared towards families in rural areas and those of Uzbek ethnicity