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Groove Time October 29, 2013. What part of the world did the Vikings come from? What did Vikings do during the 9 th and 10 th centuries? What was valued in Viking society? Who were the first settlers of North America and when did they arrive?. The Crusades. October 29, 2013. The Crusades.

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groove time october 29 2013
Groove TimeOctober 29, 2013
  • What part of the world did the Vikings come from?
  • What did Vikings do during the 9th and 10th centuries?
  • What was valued in Viking society?
  • Who were the first settlers of North America and when did they arrive?
the crusades

The Crusades

October 29, 2013

the crusades1
The Crusades
  • Religious conflicts between Christians and Muslims in the Middle Ages
  • War against the “infidels” or unbeliever
knight templars
Knight Templars
  • Most skilled Christian fighters
  • Protect Christian pilgrims in the Holy Land
  • Provided both knights and money to fund the Crusades
first crusade 1096 1099 ce
First Crusade, 1096-1099 CE
  • Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asked Pope Urban II for help against the Turks in 1096
  • Mostly French
  • Attracted by religion, adventure and wealth
  • Holy city of Jerusalem taken by army
second crusade 1147 1149 ce
Second Crusade,1147-1149 CE
  • Cities recaptured by Muslims
  • The Church calls for another “crusade”
  • Total failure for Christians
third crusade 1189 1192 ce
Third Crusade, 1189-1192 CE
  • Reaction to fall of the Holy City of Jerusalem in 1187
  • Led by leaders of Germany, England and France
  • Ended with agreement that Christians are allowed access to city but city remained under Muslim rule
fourth crusade 1202 1204 ce
Fourth Crusade, 1202-1204 CE
  • Set out to reclaim Muslim-controlled Jerusalem
  • Got distracted in Constantinople
    • Sacked the (Orthodox) Christian city

“There was never a greater crime against humanity than the Fourth Crusade.”

children s crusade 1212
Children’s Crusade, 1212
  • Nicholas of Cologne says God has told him to lead a Children’s Crusade to Jerusalem
  • Thousands of young people follow to Italy
effects of crusades
Effects of Crusades
  • Helped stabilize European society
  • Development of centralized governments
    • Monarchs began to expand their powers
  • Growth in religious enthusiasm
    • Laid the groundwork for the Inquisition
effects on relations
Effects on Relations
  • Solidified schism between Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians
  • Merchants were more inclined to trade with Middle East
ottoman empire
Ottoman Empire

October 30, 2013

intro
Intro
  • Late 13th century, a group of Turks in the NW corner of Anatolia Peninsula begin Ottoman Empire.
  • Expand to Western Asia, North Africa and Europe
  • Reached its height under Süleyman (1520-1566)
ottoman rule
Ottoman Rule
  • “Gunpowder empire” – outside conquerors unified the conquered regions
    • Successful due to military strength/technology
  • Sultan: supreme political and military leader
    • Hereditary
    • Advised by imperial counsel
    • Pashas: local rulers
religion
Religion
  • Sunni Muslims
    • Sultan responsible for guiding flock and maintaining Islamic law
  • Tolerant of non-Muslims
    • Paid taxes but allowed to worship
society
Society
  • Ruling class
  • Merchants
  • Artisans
  • Peasants
  • Pastoral peoples
  • Sultan owned all the land
culture
Culture
  • Exchange of Western and Ottoman ideas
  • Patrons of the arts
    • Textiles, arms/armor and architecture (Mosques)
fall of ottoman empire
Fall of Ottoman Empire
  • Trade with Europe led to weakened Ottoman economy
  • Military failure in Vienna shows weakness
  • Expanding divide between upper and lower classes