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DNA. mRNA. Making Proteins. rRNA. protein. This image summarizes the processes of transcription and translation. What are the three stages in this process (central dogma) and where are they in this picture?. tRNA. RNA. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)

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making proteins



Making Proteins



This image summarizes the processes of transcription and translation.

What are the three stages in this process (central dogma) and where are they in this picture?


  • RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
    • Contains Ribose as the sugar in its sugar-phosphate backbone
  • RNA has Uracil rather than Thymine as a base
    • Base pairs: A – U C – G
  • 3 types of RNA
    • messenger (mRNA)
    • transfer (tRNA)
    • ribosomal (rRNA)
two steps to protein synthesis
Two Steps to Protein Synthesis
  • Transcription: mRNA is made from a strand of DNA
  • Translation: Protein is made by a ribosome by using mRNA as the set of “instructions.”
transcription in prokaryotes
Transcription in Prokaryotes
  • DNA is transcribed into mRNA
translation in prokaryotes
Translationin Prokaryotes
  • mRNA serves as the instructional material to make proteins
transcription in eukaryotes
Transcriptionin Eukaryotes
  • DNA is transcribed into pre-mRNA
rna processing in eukaryotes
RNA Processingin Eukaryotes
  • Non-coding regions of the mRNA, called introns, are removed from the pre-mRNA.
translation in eukaryotes
Translationin Eukaryotes
  • The mRNA with only the coding region (the exons) leaves the nucleus.
  • Translation from mRNA to protein occurs in the cytoplasm.
Steps of DNA Transcription

Making mRNA from DNA

  • Helicase unzips DNA at the gene of interest
  • RNA polymerase matches RNA nucleotide bases to DNA, using one side as a template.

3. The mRNA strand is created. It now compliments the original DNA strand (G-C and A-U).

4. Ligase helps the strand of DNA to close again.

5. mRNA strand moves out of nucleus to ribosomes, DNA zips up.

key players in translation
Key Players in Translation

rRNA = RNA that makes up a ribosome

tRNA = RNA that transfers specific amino acids

mRNA = carries the DNA message;

RNA transcribed from DNA

Codon = 3 nucleotides in a row on a strand of mRNA that code for an amino acid

Anticodon = 3 nucleotides in tRNA that base pair with the codon

Amino Acids = monomers of proteins (20 in humans)

steps to translation making proteins from mrna
Steps to TranslationMaking proteins from mRNA
  • Ribosomes attach to the “start” codon of mRNA (AUG), signaling the beginning of the protein chain
  • mRNA codons are matched to corresponding tRNA anticodons and appropriate amino acids are strung together.
  • Dehydration synthesis occurs between the amino acids, and they join, making a protein chain with peptide bonds in between
  • Ribosomes detach when they come across a “stop” codon (UAA, UAG, UGA). Protein synthesis is complete.
why do you think rna uses the triplet code
Why do you think RNA uses the “triplet code”?

Do the math on your own or with a neighbor.

codon bingo
  • Fill in the Bingo Card (on page 45) with the 20 different amino acids.
    • Use your table on page 44 to help
    • Watch out for repeated amino acids!
  • Wait for your teacher to begin calling out DNA letters to begin playing
translation activity
Translation Activity
  • You and your classmates need to discover the hidden protein in your bag.
  • Follow the instructions in the bag to unlock the mystery protein.
  • Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen (and some Sulfur)
  • Proteins are responsible for many reactions
types of proteins
Types of Proteins

I am completely unchanged, and ready for some more sucrose!

I am an enzyme. I am going to try to convert you.

1. Enzymes = Catalysts that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction

  • Build up or break down substrate
    • Fit together with its substrate like a “lock” and a “key”
  • Not used up in the reaction
  • Work in a very specific biological range
  • Usually end with “-ase”

Hi sweeties, Do you remember me?

I am the active site. The substrate binds to me.

I am a product, too. I am a fructose now.

I am now a product. I am a glucose now.

In addition to what you know. I am a substrate.


2. Structural Proteins

  • Provides mechanical support to cells and tissues

3. Transport Proteins

  • Transports small ions or molecules

4. Motor Proteins

  • Enables structures to move

5. Hormones (signaling proteins)

  • Carries signals from cell-to-cell
  • e.g., insulin

6. Storage

  • Stores small molecules or ions
  • e.g., iron is stored in the liver in ferritin

7. Other specialized functions

  • Defense (immune system antibodies),
  • Receptor proteins (in eyes and muscles to detect stimulus)


  • Proteins monomers are called amino acids
    • Peptide Bond: Bond between 2 Amino Acids:
  • A chain of amino acids are called “polypeptides”


  • Polypeptides fold and twist to form a specific shape
  • Two or more polypeptides form a complete protein
  • These shapes allow proteins to function



endo membrane system

Endo-membrane System

A system of membrane organelles that are inter-related in their function

how are the organelles of the endomembrane system inter related

How are the organelles of the endomembrane system inter-related?

Take notes on the following slides as your teacher narrates what is happening

how does this design compare to what we have already learned about protein synthesis

What’s up? I am the Nucleus… what do I do for the cell?

Do you remember me?

I’ll give you a hint: I am in charge of making ribosomes and the RNA used to make proteins!

Well, before we go too far, we must not forget about me! Sometimes I’m rough and sometimes I’m smooth… no matter what, I’m always important to protein synthesis!

I have a bit of a complex, because I go by several different last names.

However, my first name is always Golgi.

I am a ribosomal subunit… soon to become a ribosome.Follow me as I travel to the E.R.

How does this design compare to what we have already learned about protein synthesis?

Which does give me a complex as well…

now let s look at some more detailed animations

Now let’s look at some more detailed animations!

How are proteins created by the “free” ribosomes differ in destination from the proteins created by the “attached” ribosomes of the ER?

Attached Ribosomes: They make proteins that are either

1) secreted out of the cell

2) attached to the plasma membrane

3) stays enclosed in a membrane to function as another organelle, such as a lysosome.

Free Ribosomes: They make proteins that stay within the cytoplasm. The cell uses these proteins itself.


You will now create a poster of the endomembrane system to demonstrate your understanding of how all the organelles work together.