antepartum haemorrhage
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ANTEPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE. Obstetric Haemorrhage. Ranks as the First cause of maternal mortality accounting for 25 – 50 \% of maternal deaths. APH: Epediology & Causes. Magnitude: 4\% of women may develop APH. Causes: placenta previa (1/200) placental abruption (1/100)

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obstetric haemorrhage
Obstetric Haemorrhage
  • Ranks as the First cause of maternal mortality accounting for 25 – 50 % of maternal deaths
aph epediology causes
APH: Epediology & Causes
  • Magnitude: 4% of women may develop APH.
  • Causes:
    • placenta previa (1/200)
    • placental abruption (1/100)
    • uterine rupture (<1% in scarred uterus)
    • vasa previa (1/2000-3000)
    • Local causes
    • Unknown origin
i abruptio placenta
  • Definition:
    • Early separation of the normally implanted placenta after 28/40 and before the end of second stage of labour
  • Recurrence:
    • The risk of recurrent abruption in a subsequent pregnancy is high.
abruptio placenta classifications
Abruptio placenta: Classifications

Are based on

  • Extent of separation: Partial vs complete
  • Location of separation: Marginal Vs central
  • Clinical presentation: Revealed, concealed and mixed
  • Clinical Severity: Mild, Moderate and Severe
Clinical Severity
  • Class 2: moderate -approx
  • 27% of all cases.
  • No vaginal bleeding to moderate vaginal bleeding
  • Moderate-to-severe uterine tenderness with possible tetanic contractions
  • Maternal tachycardia with orthostatic changes in BP and heart rate
  • Fetal distress
  • Low fibrinogen levels present (causing clotting problems)
  • Class 1 Mildest form: approx 48% of all cases.
  • No vaginal bleeding to mild vaginal bleeding
  • Slightly tender uterus
  • Normal maternal BP and heart rate
  • No coagulopathy (clotting problems)
  • No fetal distress
Clinical Severity
  • Class 3: Severe form: Approx 24% of all cases.
  • No vaginal bleeding to heavy vaginal bleeding
  • Very painful tetanic uterus
  • Maternal shock
  • Coagulopathy
  • Fetal death
i abruptio placenta risk factors
I. Abruptio placenta: Risk factors
  • Hypertensive Disease
  • Multiple pregnancy
  • Trauma
i abruptio placenta risk factors1
I. Abruptio placenta: Risk factors
  • Anaemia
  • Polyhydramnios – sudden ↓intrauterine pressure
  • Short cord
  • Uterine leiomyoma: esp if located behind the placental implantation site, predispose to abruption
abruptio placenta features
Abruptio Placenta: Features
  • Pain and tenderness
    • Initially localized then becomes generalized due to endometrial injury – extravasations of blood
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Maternal distress
  • Often I.U.F.D
placental abruption complications
Placental Abruption: Complications
  • Shock
  • Acute renal failure
    • Cause: ?seriously impaired renal perfusion 2° to ↓CO and intrarenal vasospasm as in preeclampsia
  • DIC
    • Consumptive coagulopathy 2° to hypofibrinogenemia along with elevated levels of fibrinogen–fibrin degradation products
placental abruption complications1
Placental Abruption: Complications
  • Fetal distress/demise
  • PPH
  • Couvelaire Uterus:
    • Widespread extravasation of blood into the uterine musculature and beneath the uterine serosa.
  • Sheehan syndrome
  • Puerperal sepsis
placental abruption management
Placental Abruption: Management
  • Management depends on:
    • fetal maturity,
    • degree of severity,
    • viability of the fetus/fetal distress
  • Treatment modalities
    • Expectant management of pregnancy
    • Induction/augmentation of labor
    • Caesarean section
placental abruption general management
Placental Abruption: General Management

1. Delivery

  • Resuscitation
    • FFP, whole blood, IV fluids
  • Monitor BP
  • Catherization - monitor urine output
placental abruption general management1
Placental Abruption: General Management
  • ARM
  • Induce/Augment labour
    • Oxytocin infusion or prostaglandin if necessary to induce contractions
  • Bed site clotting time
    • Done regularly
placental abruption general management2
Placental Abruption: General Management

2. Caesarean Section

  • Indications for Caesarean Section
    • salvageable baby,
    • Severe vaginal bleeding,
    • Poor progress,
    • Transverse lie, inadequate pelvis
  • Post delivery -watch out for PPH
    • Why?
      • Myometrial myofibrin loose contractility
      • Failure to clot
placenta praevia degrees
  • Total placenta praevia

The internal cervical os is covered completely by placenta.

  • Partial placenta praevia

The internal os is partially covered by placenta.

placenta praevia degrees1

3. Marginal placenta praevia

The edge of the placenta is at the margin of the internal os.

  • Low-lying placenta

The placenta is implanted in the lower uterine segment such that the placental edge actually does not reach the internal os but is in close proximity to it.

placenta praevia predisposing factors
PLACENTA PRAEVIA: Predisposing factors
  • Multiparity
  • Advanced maternal age
  • Prior C/S or other uterine surgery
  • Prior placenta previa
placenta previa diagnosis
Placenta Previa:Diagnosis
  • Painless vaginal bleeding in 2nd/3rd trimester
  • Confirmed by ultrasound
  • Up to 10% may have simultaneous abruption
  • Maternal shock is uncommon with 1st presentation of bleeding
placenta previa obstetric management
Placenta Previa:Obstetric Management
  • Vaginal exams are avoided
  • If possible, delay delivery until fetus is mature.
  •  34 weeks - buy time for steroids
  • Prevent contractions with tocolytics -indocid
  • Mobilize blood donors
placenta previa obstetric management1
Placenta Previa:Obstetric Management
  • Resuscitate - IV fluid and blood,
  • Monitor BP and amount of bleeding
  • Delivery
  • Mild non persistent bleeding
    • GA  34 weeks
      • Buy time for steroids and hospitalization.
      • Prevent contractions with tocolytics -
      • Mobilize blood donors
      • Oral haematenics
    • GA  37 weeks = consider Elective CS
  • Persistent bleeding requires immediate delivery whatever the gestation
placenta previa management
Placenta Previa:Management
  • Indications for delivery:
    • Persistent bleeding requires delivery whatever the gestation
    • Active labor
    • Documented fetal lung maturity
    •  37 weeks gestational age.
    • Excessive bleeding
    • Development of another obstetric complication mandating delivery
placenta praevia
Placenta Praevia
  • Elective caesarean if  37 weeks
  • ? Never cut through the placenta
placenta praevia1
  • Lower segment may need to be packed
  • Placenta previa may be assoc. with placenta accreta, increta or percreta→ PPH
  • PPH - 2° to poorly contractile nature of the LS of uterus.
comparison of presentation of abruption v previa v rupture
Comparison of Presentation of Abruption v. Previa v. Rupture

Abruption Previa Rupture

Abdominal pain present absent variable

Vaginal blood old fresh fresh

DIC common rare rare

Fetal distress common rare common

vasa previa1
Vasa Previa
  • “Umbilical vessels separate in the membranes at a distance from the placental margin and some of the vessels (fetal) cross the internal os and occupy a position ahead of the presenting part of the fetus.”
  • ROM may cause fetal exsanguination.
  • High fetal mortality (50-75%)
  • Risk factor: multiple gestation (esp., triplets).
vasa praevia
Vasa Praevia
  • Diagnosis
    • Moderate vag bleeding + fetal distress
    • Vessels may be palpable thru dilated cervix
    • Vessels may be visible on ultrasound
  • Difficult to distinguish clinically from abruption.
  • Treatment
    • C/S,
    • Resuscitation of infant (volume)
local unknown causes of aph
Rupture of uterus

Carcinoma of cervix


Cervical polyp

Bilharzia of cervix


Local & Unknown Causes of APH