HSB4U – Challenge & Change Systemic Discrimination and Gender Inequality
Values • the beliefs of a group that provide standards for members’ behaviours
Gender Inequality • Most at risk for falling below LICO? • Female lone-parent families where the mother has less than high school education: 90% below LICO • Women STILL earn 71 cents for every dollar a male earns!
Pluralism • Singularity: a belief that everyone in society should act and think the same way • Ex: Iran after the 1979 revolution • Other examples? • Pluralism or Inclusiveness: widespread acceptance of differences in culture, religion, values and lifestyle • Ex: Canada?
Case Study – Educating Girls in Afghanistan • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jm3zQVPfn-c United Nations. (2010, Dec. 30). United Nations Radio. Retrieved Oct. 2, 2012 from http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/english/2010/12/food-aid-suspended-after- pakistan-suicide-bombing-2/
Changing Values • Participation rates: percentage of a particular group (16-64 years of age) available for paid work who are actively employed or seeking employment in the paid economy at any given time – either as employees or self-employed
Participation Rates • Afghanistan’s female participation rate is 16% (2010). • Canada: 62% • US: 58% • Mexico: 41.9% • China: 68% • Tanzania: 88% World Bank. (2012). Data: labour participation rate, female. Retrieved Oct. 2, 2012 from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.CACT.FE.ZS
Participation Rates in Canada • Men: 80%+ • Women: • 1970: 38% • 1980: 50.4% • 1992: 57.6% • 1998: 70%+
Social Change in Canada • In 1970s, Canada’s female participation rate was 38%. • Why has it increased so much?
Homework • Read and take notes on rest of 91 to middle of 94. Include key concepts • (make sure you include all the info answering question 3 on page 97) • Read Case Study E (Systemic Discrimination: Karen) and answer the two questions on the bottom • Continue Environmental Behaviour Modification Assignment
HSB4U – Challenge & Change Systemic Discrimination
The Employment Equity Act (1986) • Affected all employees of the federal government and all federally regulated industries and crown corporations (e.g. the armed forces, the health care system, postal service) • Purpose: fight systemic discrimination • Four target groups: • Women • Aboriginal people • Members of visible minorities • People with mental and physical disabilities
Employment Equity Act cont’d • Requires these employers to set hiring goals for each target • Purpose: achieve workplace equity
Employment Equity Act cont’d • Equal pay for work of equal value: • Established a scoring system to compare the value of different jobs • All jobs scoring equally must be paid at the same rates • Purpose was to end discriminatory pay practices • Overall: • End discriminatory hiring practices • End discriminatory pay practices • Remember: Only for employees of the federal government and federally regulated industries. Not private corporations/companies
Case Study E: Karen 1) Did Karen face discrimination? What type? 2) What would need to be done to ensure that women had equal opportunity at this company?
Case Study: Karen Relating Karen’s case to previous course content: Social Change Alienation and Conformity Income Inequality Social Assistance Employment Equity
Systemic Discrimination Systemic discrimination(page 91): when a systemfavours one or some groups over others in terms of hiring, benefits, promotions and pay increases. Systemic racism or sexism(page 290): when inequality is part of the operation of the whole company, organization, or government. Also known as institutional racism.
Systemic Discrimination Systems can include: corporations, organizations, governments, countries, or any other social institutions Example of systemic discrimination? • Quebec laws that kept women from voting until 1940 • Swiss women couldn’t vote until 1971 • Apartheid laws kept black South Africans from voting until 1991 • Immigration in Canada once favoured white Europeans over others (restrictions on Black people, Chinese, Japanese, Sikhs, other Asians) • MS St. Louis carrying 907 Jewish refugees not allowed to land and sent refugees back to Europe, many to do die in concentration camps • Aboriginals on reserve couldn’t vote until 1962 • Aboriginal Canadians face social and economic barriers to success
Systemic Discrimination 1) Read “Aboriginal People Face Systemic Racism in Canadian Workforce” (2001): p. 291-2. 2) In groups of 3, answer question 1 on page 292 AND Find evidence of employment disadvantage faced by Aboriginal Canadians and foreign born visible minorities. Support each with a piece of data.
Systemic Discrimination: Aboriginal Canadians WabKinew Intro: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbYcuHtvulI 500 years in two minutes: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xmYu-Wppp3c
Systemic Discrimination: Aboriginal Canadians • Housing Conditions: Nearly half (45%) of First Nations people living on reserve in 2006 lived in homes that they identified as needing major repairs, compared to 36% a decade ago. • Post-Secondary Education: In 2006, one-quarter of non-Aboriginal adults had a university degree, compared to 7% of First Nations people. • High School Education: In 2006, one-third (33%) of Aboriginal adults aged 25 to 54 had less than a high school education compared to nearly 13% of the non-Aboriginal population • Employment: In 2006, the employment rate for Aboriginal people of core working age (25 to 54) was 65.8%, compared to 81.6% for non-Aboriginal people in 2006
Systemic Discrimination: Aboriginal Canadians • Income: The median total income of the Aboriginal population aged 25 to 54 in 2005 was just over $22,000, compared to over $33,000 for the non-Aboriginal population in the same age group. • Note: The median income for First Nations people living on reserve was just over $14,000 • Justice system: In 2006 Aboriginal people represented 3.1% of all adults 18 years of age and older, but accounted for 25% of adults admitted to provincial/territorial sentenced custody and 18% of all adults admitted to federal custody. Aboriginal adults accounted for 20% of all adults admitted to probation as well as 21% of those admitted to a conditional sentence. • Victims of Violence: In 2004, there were 319 violent incidents for every 1,000 Aboriginal people compared to 101 incidences for every 1,000 non-Aboriginal people
Systemic Discrimination: Aboriginal Canadians Holmes on Homes: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IVB_HqcwZKo
Homework Read “Justice for Some” article Make a list of institutions mentioned in the article that systemically discriminate, AND defining racial profiling.