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HSB4U – Challenge & Change. Systemic Discrimination and Gender Inequality. Values. the beliefs of a group that provide standards for members’ behaviours. Gender Inequality. Most at risk for falling below LICO?

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Hsb4u challenge change

HSB4U – Challenge & Change

Systemic Discrimination and

Gender Inequality


  • the beliefs of a group that provide standards for members’ behaviours

Gender inequality
Gender Inequality

  • Most at risk for falling below LICO?

  • Female lone-parent families where the mother has less than high school education: 90% below LICO

  • Women STILL earn 71 cents for every dollar a male earns!


  • Singularity: a belief that everyone in society should act and think the same way

    • Ex: Iran after the 1979 revolution

    • Other examples?

  • Pluralism or Inclusiveness: widespread acceptance of differences in culture, religion, values and lifestyle

    • Ex: Canada?

Case study educating girls in afghanistan
Case Study – Educating Girls in Afghanistan

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jm3zQVPfn-c

United Nations. (2010, Dec. 30). United Nations Radio. Retrieved Oct. 2, 2012 from

http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/english/2010/12/food-aid-suspended-after- pakistan-suicide-bombing-2/

Changing values
Changing Values

  • Participation rates: percentage of a particular group (16-64 years of age) available for paid work who are actively employed or seeking employment in the paid economy at any given time – either as employees or self-employed

Participation rates
Participation Rates

  • Afghanistan’s female participation rate is 16% (2010).

  • Canada: 62%

  • US: 58%

  • Mexico: 41.9%

  • China: 68%

  • Tanzania: 88%

World Bank. (2012). Data: labour participation rate, female. Retrieved Oct. 2, 2012 from


Participation rates in canada
Participation Rates in Canada

  • Men: 80%+

  • Women:

    • 1970: 38%

    • 1980: 50.4%

    • 1992: 57.6%

    • 1998: 70%+

Social change in canada
Social Change in Canada

  • In 1970s, Canada’s female participation rate was 38%.

  • Why has it increased so much?


  • Read and take notes on rest of 91 to middle of 94. Include key concepts

  • (make sure you include all the info answering question 3 on page 97)

  • Read Case Study E (Systemic Discrimination: Karen) and answer the two questions on the bottom

  • Continue Environmental Behaviour Modification Assignment

Hsb4u challenge change1

HSB4U – Challenge & Change

Systemic Discrimination

The employment equity act 1986
The Employment Equity Act (1986)

  • Affected all employees of the federal government and all federally regulated industries and crown corporations (e.g. the armed forces, the health care system, postal service)

  • Purpose: fight systemic discrimination

  • Four target groups:

  • Women

  • Aboriginal people

  • Members of visible minorities

  • People with mental and physical disabilities

Employment equity act cont d
Employment Equity Act cont’d

  • Requires these employers to set hiring goals for each target

  • Purpose: achieve workplace equity

Employment equity act cont d1
Employment Equity Act cont’d

  • Equal pay for work of equal value:

  • Established a scoring system to compare the value of different jobs

  • All jobs scoring equally must be paid at the same rates

  • Purpose was to end discriminatory pay practices

  • Overall:

  • End discriminatory hiring practices

  • End discriminatory pay practices

  • Remember: Only for employees of the federal government and federally regulated industries. Not private corporations/companies

Case study e karen
Case Study E: Karen

1) Did Karen face discrimination? What type?

2) What would need to be done to ensure that women had equal opportunity at this company?

Case study karen
Case Study: Karen

Relating Karen’s case to previous course content:

Social Change

Alienation and Conformity

Income Inequality

Social Assistance

Employment Equity

Systemic discrimination
Systemic Discrimination

Systemic discrimination(page 91): when a systemfavours one or some groups over others in terms of hiring, benefits, promotions and pay increases.

Systemic racism or sexism(page 290): when inequality is part of the operation of the whole company, organization, or government. Also known as institutional racism.

Systemic discrimination1
Systemic Discrimination

Systems can include: corporations, organizations, governments, countries, or any other social institutions

Example of systemic discrimination?

  • Quebec laws that kept women from voting until 1940

  • Swiss women couldn’t vote until 1971

  • Apartheid laws kept black South Africans from voting until 1991

  • Immigration in Canada once favoured white Europeans over others (restrictions on Black people, Chinese, Japanese, Sikhs, other Asians)

  • MS St. Louis carrying 907 Jewish refugees not allowed to land and sent refugees back to Europe, many to do die in concentration camps

  • Aboriginals on reserve couldn’t vote until 1962

  • Aboriginal Canadians face social and economic barriers to success

Systemic discrimination2
Systemic Discrimination

1) Read “Aboriginal People Face Systemic Racism in Canadian Workforce” (2001): p. 291-2.

2) In groups of 3, answer question 1 on page 292


Find evidence of employment disadvantage faced by Aboriginal Canadians and foreign born visible minorities. Support each with a piece of data.

Systemic discrimination aboriginal canadians
Systemic Discrimination: Aboriginal Canadians


Intro: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbYcuHtvulI

500 years in two minutes: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xmYu-Wppp3c

Systemic discrimination aboriginal canadians1
Systemic Discrimination: Aboriginal Canadians

  • Housing Conditions: Nearly half (45%) of First Nations people living on reserve in 2006 lived in homes that they identified as needing major repairs, compared to 36% a decade ago. 

  • Post-Secondary Education: In 2006, one-quarter of non-Aboriginal adults had a university degree, compared to 7% of First Nations people.

  • High School Education: In 2006, one-third (33%) of Aboriginal adults aged 25 to 54 had less than a high school education compared to nearly 13% of the non-Aboriginal population

    • Employment: In 2006, the employment rate for Aboriginal people of core working age (25 to 54) was 65.8%, compared to 81.6% for non-Aboriginal people in 2006

Systemic discrimination aboriginal canadians2
Systemic Discrimination: Aboriginal Canadians

  • Income: The median total income of the Aboriginal population aged 25 to 54 in 2005 was just over $22,000, compared to over $33,000 for the non-Aboriginal population in the same age group.

    • Note: The median income for First Nations people living on reserve was just over $14,000

    • Justice system: In 2006 Aboriginal people represented 3.1% of all adults 18 years of age and older, but accounted for 25% of adults admitted to provincial/territorial sentenced custody and 18% of all adults admitted to federal custody. Aboriginal adults accounted for 20% of all adults admitted to probation as well as 21% of those admitted to a conditional sentence.

    • Victims of Violence: In 2004, there were 319 violent incidents for every 1,000 Aboriginal people compared to 101 incidences for every 1,000 non-Aboriginal people

Systemic discrimination aboriginal canadians3
Systemic Discrimination: Aboriginal Canadians

Holmes on Homes: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IVB_HqcwZKo


Read “Justice for Some” article

Make a list of institutions mentioned in the article that systemically discriminate, AND defining racial profiling.