The Theory of Planned Behavior and Reasoned action • The Theory of Planned Behavior: • This theory is an extension of the • theory of Reasoned Action. • IceckAjzen ( professor of Psychology at the University of Massachusetts) added this extension followed by some empirical research when he and his team realized that T.R.A cannot predict the final behavior. • The Theory of Reasoned Action • (T.R.A): • This theory was suggested by Martin • Fishbein & IcekAjzen in 1975. • The purpose of this theory was to • evaluate human behavior . • This theory has been used in many • different fields such as Marketing, • Health, Social and, etc.
Theory of Reasoned Action(T.R.A) Intention Behavior
The theory of Planned Behavior Behavioral beliefs Attitude Behavior Normative Subjective Norm Intention Perceived behavioral Control beliefs
Theory of planned behavior an extension of theory of Reasoned action • Perceived Behavioral control: Covers volitional behaviors to predict behavioral intention and actual behavior (Wikipedia). • Expectation: One’s experience in failing repeatedly, has an affect on his/her future behavioral reactions( the feeling of that fail becomes a precondition). • Self-efficacy helps to understand the relationship between beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behavior. SET has been used broadly in health-related fields. • IcekAjzen extended the Theory of Reasoned Action in 1985. • What was added to TRA is: Perceived Behavioral Control(PBC) • PBC has its roots in Self Efficacy Control(SET) introduced by Bandura in 1977. • Self-efficacy(SET) and Outcome-expectancy are the two branches of expectations (Bandura 1986). • Outcome-expectancy is when a person estimates the result of his/her behavior.
Definitions • Normative belief: that’s how others make a person feel with their reactions to a particular behavior. • Subjective norm : when others are expecting someone to act or not to act in a certain way. • Behavioral belief: the belief of a person that is expecting certain results of a given behavior. • Attitude toward behavior: it is the degree of evaluation of an act being positive or negative.
Definitions • Behavioral intension: a sign that shows the person is ready to perform a particular behavior and this happens right before the performance. • Behavior : a noticeable reaction of someone toward something in a given circumstance. • Perceived behavioral control: that’s when the person thinks whether it’s easy or not for him/her to perform a behavior. • Controlbeliefs :The person believes that other factors exist that make it easier or more difficult to perform a behavior.
Summary • Human beliefs initiate an attitude toward the behavior which is influenced by societies’ beliefs. These negative or positive beliefs create pressure on a human and he/she becomes conditioned by facing these beliefs. • In result, when a person’s intention is to perform a behavior, these beliefs as perceived, control indirectly the intention and control the behavior.
Strength and limitation • TPB & TRA both agree that “social norm” has an important impact on “social behavior”. • Limitation: • Some health-related research has shown that “personal emotion” is more effective than “social norm”;therefore, this wouldn’t help to predict behavior. • The Theory of planned behavior can predict deliberate behavior, TRA can not. • “Predict behavioral control” is a concept that helps to understandthat behavior is not 100% voluntary and is related to behavioral intention. • Empirical evidence in health related research has shown that TPB helped more than TRA to predict intention.