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Defining Geography. Word coined by Eratosthenes Geo = Earth Graphia = writing Geography thus means “earth writing”. Contemporary Geography. Geographers ask where and why Location and distribution are important terms

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Defining Geography

  • Word coined by Eratosthenes
    • Geo = Earth
    • Graphia = writing
      • Geography thus means “earth writing”
slide2

Contemporary Geography

  • Geographers ask where and why
    • Location and distribution are important terms
  • Geographers are concerned with the tension between globalization and local diversity
  • A division: physical geography and human geography
geography s vocabulary
Geography’s Vocabulary

Place

Region

Scale

Space

Connections

slide5

A map serves two purposes:

A tool for storing reference material and a tool for communicating geographic information.

slide15

These mushroom spores are to small to see, so we put them under a MICROSCOPE

When we see them, we can study them.

slide16

This planet it too big to see, so we put it under a MACROSCOPE

When we see it, we can study it.

slide17

“Some things are very tiny, and we must use complex electric and optical means (e.g., a microscope) to enlarge them so as to understand their configuration and structural relationships. In contrast, geographical things are so extensive that we must somehow reduce them to bring them into view.”

-Arthur Robinson, cartographer

slide18

We need to use our . . .

MAPS as MACROSCOPES. . .

to help us think critically about problems and “problem spots” on the world stage.

slide20

All Maps Lie....

Because the world is a sphere and maps are flat, there will always be some degree of distortion. The next several slides will display some of the more popular distortions.

slide21

Key Facts about Mercator:

  • All compass bearings are correct
  • Projection grossly exaggerates area as you move from the equator
slide22

There is distortion at the poles- Stretches the poles into long lines instead of leaving them as points.

  • Quickly dissipates as you move toward the equator
slide26

Types of

Thematic

Maps

slide30

Proportional Symbol

US Population

slide31

Scale

Displaying the same geographical features at various scales may also depict misleading results.

slide33

ETHNIC CONFLICT AND THE CONCEPT OF SCALE

  • Ethnic conflicts abound on the world political map. To understand them, we use a set of concepts:
    • minorities
    • majorities
  • We count and we quantify.
  • Because we quantify we think our analysis is objective.
  • Because we are objective, we reach unbiased conclusions.
slide34

What is a minority?

“the smaller in number of two groups constituting a whole”

- Merriam-Webster OnLine

Djibouti’s Ethnic Composition:

Somali 60%

Afar 35%

slide36

In the previous slide, Georgia had one of the highest number of African-Americans, but a closer look tells a different picture. The dark red is the Atlanta metropolitan area.

slide37

Using Census Tracts of the Atlanta Metropolitan Area, a different scale gives different results.

slide39

Manipulating

Data

Data may also distort desired results. The following slides show how population of a particular cohort may be misleading.

slide42

These four New York counties (New York, Kings, Queens, and Bronx) have a combined African-American population of 2,121,882 and outnumbers the total number of African-Americans in the entire state of Texas 2,021,632

slide44

A similar comparison can be made with Hispanics living in the US. This map shows the total percentage of Hispanics in each county.

slide46

These three Southern California counties (Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego) have a total Hispanic population of 5,045,726 which is greater than the total Hispanic population of Texas at 4,339,905. New Mexico has the greatest percentage of Hispanics (33%), it’s total Hispanic population is 579,224.

slide47

US Population

The map below shows the US population divided into Natural Breaks. In this case, the natural breaks are near the 7,000,000 mark.

slide48

US Population

This map shows US population in Quintiles. In this map, states are classified into five separate categories based on population. The dark red represents the states in the top one-fifth. The total population in each state has not changed; however, the way that it is classified has changed.