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READ. GLEIM CHAPTER 5 (5.7-5.9) 17 QUESTIONS JEP CHAPTER 8 SECTION B (8-29 TO 8-47) PHAK CHAPTER 9 ASA Chapter 8-1 through 8-20. Private Pilot Ground School Weight & Balance Class #5. Content of Lesson. Terms used in weight and balance calculations.

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slide1
READ
  • GLEIM CHAPTER 5 (5.7-5.9)

17 QUESTIONS

  • JEP CHAPTER 8 SECTION B (8-29 TO 8-47)
  • PHAK CHAPTER 9
  • ASA Chapter 8-1 through 8-20
content of lesson
Content of Lesson
  • Terms used in weight and balance calculations.
  • Effects of weight and the distribution of weight
  • Various Manufacturers display of weight and balance info and use of
  • B-19 weight and balance computations sample and actual problems
weight and balance terminology
Weight and Balance Terminology
  • Reference Datum- imaginary vertical plane from which all horizontal distances are measured for balance purposes
weight and balance terminology1
Weight and Balance Terminology
  • Standard Empty Weight - the weight of a standard airplane including unusable fuel, full operating fluids and full oil.
  • Basic empty weight - Standard empty weight plus optional equipment
weight and balance terminology2
Weight and Balance Terminology
  • Max ramp weight - max weight of aircraft for taxi operations (it includes start taxi and run-up fuel)
  • Max takeoff weight - max weight approved for the start of the takeoff run
  • Max landing weight - max weight approved for the landing touchdown
weight and balance terminology3
Weight and Balance Terminology
  • Useful load - Difference between take off weight and basic empty weight
  • Payload - Weight of the occupants, cargo and baggage
  • Zero fuel weight - weight exclusive of usable fuel useful for calculations when fuel is a variable
weight and balance terminology4
Weight and Balance Terminology
  • Tare - Weight of chocks, blocks, stands ect used when weighing an aircraft
  • Arm - the horizontal distance from the reference datum
  • Moment - the force exerted by a weight using an arm usually measured in in/lbs or foot/lbs
  • Station- a designated location on the fuselage measured from the reference datum
weight and balance terminology5
Weight and Balance Terminology
  • Center of Gravity - The point at which an airplane would balance if suspended from that point
  • C. G. Arm (center of gravity)- The arm obtained by adding the airplane’s individual moments and dividing the sum by the total weight
weight and balance terminology6
Weight and Balance Terminology
  • C. G. Limits - The extreme center of gravity location within which the airplane must be operated at a given weight.
  • Useable Fuel - Fuel available for flight planning
weight and balance terminology7
Weight and Balance Terminology
  • Unusable Fuel - Fuel remaining after a runout test.
  • Falcrum - Support point
principles of weight and balance
Principles of Weight and Balance
  • Weight x Arm = Moment
  • Arm = Moment/Weight
  • Weight=Moment/Arm
determining gross weight center of gravity
Determining Gross Weight & Center of Gravity
  • Three ways
  • Computation method,
  • Tabular method, and
  • Graphical method
tabular method p136
Tabular method (p136)
  • Like B-19, uses tables to quickly determine arm and moment.
graphical method p136
Graphical method (p136)
  • Also used for B-19 to determine gross weight moment limits (6-12)
  • Loading graphs commonly found in cessna POH’s
  • Easy way to determine if aircraft is in the envelope.
high gross weights1
High gross weights
  • Added wear on engine
  • Increased fuel consumption
  • Overheating in climb
high gross weights2
High gross weights
  • It is a violation of FARs to exceed gross weight limits
slide28
LLF
  • Limit load factors normal 3.8 -1.52 utility 4.4 -1.76 aerobatic 6.0 -3.0
high gross weights3
High gross weights
  • Over loading may accelerate metallic fatigue failures
  • Baggage floor may have limits on weight for structural reasons
  • Stability may be effected to the negative if overloaded
high gross weights4
High gross weights
  • The higher the gross weight the higher the stall speed
  • Less reserve angle of attack
  • Load distribution
safety
Safety
  • Manufacturer set limits for controllability and maneuverability
  • Certification procedures demand a certain amount of oscillations before dampening out this determines where the aft cg is located
forward cg gives
Forward CG gives:
  • Higher stall speed,
  • Higher elevator control forces (critical in takeoff and landing phase),
  • Slower cruise, (higher angle of attack need more tail down force.)
  • More overall stability,
  • Longer takeoff and landing distance,
aft c of g
Aft C of G
  • With an aft cg recovery from a stall spin harder or impossible.
  • Lower stall speed
  • Less elevator control forces in T.O. landing
  • Faster cruise, (Lower angle of attack need less tail down force.)
  • Less overall stability, Less takeoff and landing distance
lateral balance
Lateral Balance
  • Lateral unbalance usually a result of unbalanced fuel load will cause additional lift and drag on heavy side
weights
Weights
  • Oil weighs 7.5 lbs. per gallon. Since oil is usually measured in quarts, each quart weights 1 7/8 pounds.
  • The average weight for passengers is approx. 170 lbs.
  • Aviation fuel (Avgas)weighs 6 lbs. Per gallon
  • 2 gallons of fuel = 12 lbs.
problem 1
Problem #1.
  • Determine the CG of these three objects
  • Weight A=100 lbs Arm 50
  • Weight B=100 lbs Arm 90
  • Weight C=200 lbs Arm 150
  • What is the CG
  • =110
problem 2
Problem #2
  • Basic Empty Weight = 1340
  • Arm=37
  • Front seats=140 lbs Pilot and 115 pound passenger, Moment=8,925
  • Rear seat =212 lbs passenger and 97 pound passenger. Arm 72
  • Useable Fuel=40 Gallons, Arm 48
  • Baggage 50 lbs. Moment 4,600
  • To stay in envelope CG limits=+35.6 to +43.2. What is the CG? Is the aircraft in the envelope?
problem 2 answer
Problem #2 Answer
  • CG=44.1
  • No the aircraft is not in the envelope.
  • Can we fly the aircraft?
  • No, not legal
  • One possible solution would be to trade places between the 212 pound rear-seat occupant and the 115 pound occupant. Using a weight shift equation we can see how far the CG will move.
weight shift equation
Weight Shift Equation
  • By manipulating the formula we find that CG=(Weight shifted X Distance it is shifted)/Total Weight
weight shift equation1
Weight Shift Equation
  • Weight to be shifted is equal to what?
  • (212lbs-115lbs)
  • Distance it is shifted is equal to what?
  • (72 inches-35inches)
weight shift equation2
Weight Shift Equation
  • Total Weight = What?
  • 2,194
  • (212-115)X(72-35)/2,194=
  • 97X37/2,194=
  • 1.6 inches
  • This makes the new CG 42.5 within limits
b 19 problem
B-19 PROBLEM
  • BB2
  • PILOT 190 LBS ARM 109
  • FRONT PASSENGER 180 LBS ARM 108
  • BACK SEAT 15 LBS
  • FUEL 40 GALLONS
  • FLIGHT 1.5 HOURS
  • GPH 7.8
  • START RUNUP TAXI 1 GALLON