INSE-6311 Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Management Systems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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INSE-6311 Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Management Systems
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INSE-6311 Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Management Systems

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  1. INSE-6311 Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Management Systems Framework of Infrastructure Management

  2. Covered Topics • Definition of infrastructure • Brief history • Infrastructure management • Issues, challenges and opportunities • Role of engineering • Needs assessment • Life cycle concepts • Transportation asset management • New approaches for infrastructure financing

  3. What is Infrastructure? • “A civilization’s rise and fall is linked to its ability to feed and shelter its people and to defend itself. These capabilities depend on infrastructure - the underlying, often hidden foundation of a society’s wealth and quality of life. A society that neglects its infrastructure loses the ability to transport people and food, provide clean air and water, control diseases, and conduct commerce.” NSF, ‘Civil Infrastructure Systems Research’, 1994.

  4. What is Infrastructure? (2) • “The nation’s infrastructure is its system of public facilities, both publicly and privately funded, which provide for the delivery of essential services and a sustained standard of living. This interdependent, yet self-contained, set of structures provides for mobility, shelter, services, and utilities… America’s infrastructure is the base upon which society rests. Its condition affects our lifestyles and security and each is threatened by its unanswered decay.” Associated General Contractors of America, 1982.

  5. Milestones in (U.S.) History • Has generally paralleled economic development • Roads • Railroads • Telegraph/ Telephone • Sewer/Water Supply Systems (1800-1850) • First federal highway funds (1918) • Franklin Roosevelt - public works funding (1930) • Interstate Highway System (1950)

  6. What is Infra. Mgmt.? • Administrative process of creating, planning, and maintaining our infrastructures • An integrated, inter-disciplinary process that ensures infrastructure performance over its life cycle • Life cycle is entire time from design through decommissioning

  7. Overall Framework for Infra. Mgmt. Program/Network/ System Level Database Project Level In-Service Monitoring & Evaluation

  8. Program/System Level • Data (location, performance, evaluation) • Deficiencies/Needs (current, future) • Alternatives and Analyses • Priorities Financing Budgets Policies Exogenous Factors

  9. Project/Section Level • Data (materials, loads, flows, costs, etc.) • Detailed Design • Construction • Maintenance Standards/ Specifications Budget Limit Environmental Constraints

  10. Ideal Infra. Mgmt. System • Would coordinate and enable the execution of all activities • Maximizes use and expenditure of resources • Maximize performance of assets • Serve all management levels

  11. Key Issues • Decay and deterioration (condition, failure) • Lack of maintenance/renovation • Scarcity of financing • Federal gov’t funds projects of national/interstate importance - states left to build the rest • Money tends to be for construction and not maintenance • Lots of infrastructure needs - which ones are #1 priority? • Inadequate reporting and accounting

  12. State of Highways and Bridges (U.S.) • ~235,000 miles of roads rated poor or mediocre • >70% of peak-hour travel on urban interstates is congested • 1/3 bridges structurally deficient or obsolete, and needs improvements • >25% of bridges are more than 50 years old

  13. State of Water (U.S.) • 10,000 dams classified as ‘high hazard’ • 13,500 as ‘significant hazard’ • Compliance costs to meet Safe Water Drinking Act $3 billion per year • Will need 3,400 new treatment facilities

  14. Construction Industry • 13% of GDP • Second largest industry in U.S. • Also most fragmented • 1 million firms, 10 million workers • Lots of ‘small’ firms (subcontractors) • Lags behind other major industries in terms of R&D • High-tech, chemicals, etc. 3-4%, construction only 0.5%

  15. Financials • Federal investment on infrastructure stock fell from 1.2% of GDP in 1980 to 0.8% in 1993. • Since majority of infrastructure funding comes from U.S. government, this is a big problem • Concern for spending has reduced this even more

  16. Risk, Sustainable Development • Risk and liability concerns generally lead to low-risk designs, which rewards stability not innovation • Also challenges related to building with an eye towards the resource needs of future generations

  17. Opportunities • Need follow-through on National Construction Goals • Innovative financing (e.g. infrastructure bonds) • Link between infrastructure investment and economic productivity • High-Performance Materials

  18. How did this happen? • Construction wins votes, no one cares about rehabilitation/repair • Institutional issues favor construction financing • Rehabilitation has high total costs in urban environments

  19. Why Does it Matter? Social System Economic System Physical Infrastructure Natural Environment

  20. Where Does Engineering Help? • Systems engineering perspective • Framing of problem • Using quantitative tools to solve it • Tools: uncertainty/risk analysis • Optimization via Linear Programming, Probabilistic, etc. • Both parts are important

  21. CONTEXT (Tech./Social/Political Environment) PROBLEM RECOGNITION (Reviews, Preliminary Assessments) Periodic In-Service Monitoring & Evaluation PROBLEM DEFINITION (Objectives, Constraints, Decisions) GENERATION OF ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS/EVALUATION/ OPTIMIZATION IMPLEMENTATION (Schedules, Activities, Documentation)

  22. Tools for Optimization • Mathematical Programming • LP (min/max with constraints), etc. • Heuristics • Probabilistic • Graphical (e.g. Scheduling Charts)

  23. Needs Assessment • Concept of ‘need’ used casually • Can refer to both ‘need’ for repair as well as ‘need’ for new capacity • It is difficult to judge how much infrastructure a region or a society ‘needs’ and how ‘need’ is measured • Economic viability? Growth? • What is a better approach?

  24. Approach to Defining Needs • National Council on Public Works Improvement (NCPWI) 1986 - considers: • Consumer Demand • Recognition that demand changes • Consumer willingness to pay • Benefit-cost analysis

  25. Other Issues on Needs • Instead of focusing on conditions, establish future investment priorities • Instead of simply finding cost to repair, consider cost of alternatives with same effect • Consider infrastructure ‘output’ as measure instead of condition • Funding needs to match area of influence, e.g. federal money for federal interests

  26. More Issues • Needs assessments should distinguish: • Safety or structural defects • Capacity shortages • Upgrading to new standards • Current and future demands

  27. Economics • Performance = P(S,D,t) • S = Supply of infras. Services = S(X) • X = set of functional characteristics • Planners want adequate X, S over time • D = demand for these services

  28. Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) • A ‘life cycle’ is the entire length of time from design, planning, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning/demolition • It is important to understand the cost implications of design decisions across the life cycle • Also important to understand where in the life cycle that total costs occur

  29. Life Cycle Cost Influences Level of Influence Cumulative Cost 100% 50% Increasing Expenditure 0% Planning Decreasing Influence Design Construction Maintenance Disposal Time

  30. Related Topic: Service Life • Physical service life is the length of time which a piece of infrastructure is able to be kept in useful service • Depends on all life cycle phases • Can be extended from original design due to rehabilitation or preventive maintenance

  31. Expected Service Life Estimates • Airport Buildings - 150 yrs • Runways - 50 yrs • Bridge Decks - 50 • Bridge Sub-/superstructure - 125 • Tunnels - 200 • Sports Complexes - 300 • Electricity/telephone lines - 400 Source: Hudson, Haas, Uddin

  32. New Approach for Infra. Mgmt. • Critically review status of infrastructure • Understand issues in managing existing infrastructure rather than building new • Develop awareness of tools and resources for infrastructure management

  33. Areas of concern • Structural Deficiency (SD) - has been restricted to light loads, or is closed, or requires immediate work to stay open • Functionally obsolete (FO) - one of several design parameters no longer meets usual criteria for system

  34. Obsolescence • No longer meets current needs or expectation levels • Aging, technology, standard change • 2-yr old computers good example • Inability to meet changing performance requirements

  35. Obsolescence & Service Life • “Always remember that someone, somewhere is making a product that will make your product obsolete” • -Georges Doriot • “Planned obsolescence” by Vince Packard’s The Waste Makers • Practice of deliberately designing products to last for a shorter period of time • Systemically doing this leads to inferior products

  36. What Causes It? • Technological change • Regulatory change • SDWA forced upgrades • Economic / social changes • Value / behavior changes

  37. Service vs. Physical Lives • Physical Lives: time it takes for infrastructure to wear out/fail • Predicting this may be irrelevant • Service life: time actually used • In general these 2 are different • Power plants become obsolete because of technology/policy changes

  38. Design service life • “Design service life” only meaningful if defined in terms of obsolescence • Assumptions about lifetime will likely change over time • Infrastructure seldom abandoned before replacement in place • Expectations will increase • Need to consider expectations and deterioration functions

  39. Rates of Change • Information economy is making older transport modes obsolete • E.g., ground -> air shipping • How long should infrastructure last? • Physical or service? • Where will it go when we are done? • What could we do with Roman roads now?

  40. Strategies to Mitigate • Plan and design for flexibility • Build to assure optimum performance level is achieved • Monitor change to defer obsolescence • Repair and retrofit early

  41. Asset Management • More specific than Infras. Mgmt. • Focused on transportation Assets • Assets = $ + people + physical resources • Guided by: performance goals, time horizons, engineering / economics • High-level assessment of trade-offs between alternatives • Quantitative and qualitative data • Source: ‘Asset Mgmt Primer’, DOT 1999

  42. Investment Decision Making Asset Management Primer, FHWA STIP: State Transportation Improvement Program

  43. Bridge Management Systems • Inventory and condition ratings • Deteriorating prediction features • How and when to spend money on bridges to maintain/preserve condition • PONTIS Demo • Even though features exist, most states use it only for inventory/database • Economic prediction parts ignored

  44. Deficiency Ratings - Bridges • National Bridge Inventory (NBI) used as information source to U.S. Congress to justify spending • States can use own system, but must report in form usable by NBI • Ratings subjective, but follow a given and preset scale • Shows coding guide and inspection rules

  45. New Approaches for Infrastructure Financing • Proposed by Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) • Asset approach for state financial reporting • Just like private companies do • Costs, revenues of providing services • Historical cost estimate or current replacement cost • Depreciation allowed (SL, condition) • Exempt if subject to Asset Mgmt AND in better than planned condition • Asset Mgmt system should contain: • Inventory • Updated condition assessment • Expected annual maintenance costs