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State-Aid Bituminous Seminar. MnDOT/MAPA 2006. 2006 Bituminous Specification. 2005 Spec Book not printed yet. Must insert 2006 Spec by special provision. Combined 2360/2350 (Gyratory/Marshall Design) Specification

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2006 bituminous specification
2006 Bituminous Specification

  • 2005 Spec Book not printed yet.

  • Must insert 2006 Spec by special provision.

    • Combined 2360/2350 (Gyratory/Marshall Design) Specification


  • 2005 Book will contain only 2360 Combined

Specification changes
Specification Changes

  • Clarification of Standard vs. Specialty asphalt binder grades.

  • Removed Wear vs. Non-Wear differentiation based on measured position in pavement structure.

  • Aggregate requirement for flat and elongated

  • Mixture acceptance requirements when total production is less than 4 tests.

  • Use of IRI for ride evaluation and acceptance.

Asphalt binder grades

Standard Grades

B = PG 58‑28

C = PG 58‑34

E = PG 64‑28

F = PG 64‑34

L = PG 64‑22

Specialty Grades

A = PG 52‑34

D = PG 58‑40

G = PG 64‑40

H = PG 70‑28

I = PG 70‑34

Asphalt Binder Grades

Binder recommendations 1 million esal s aadt 2 300
Binder Recommendations< 1 million ESAL’s, (AADT < 2,300)

  • Overlay -- PG 58-28

    • 98% Reliability Rutting,  50% Reliability Thermal

  • New Construction --

    • Top 3” -- PG 58-34

      • 98% Reliability for Rutting,  80% for Thermal

    • Below 3” from surface -- PG 58-28

      • 98% Reliability for Rutting,  80% for Thermal

Wear vs non wear mixture
Wear vs. Non-Wear Mixture

  • Should identify in the project typical sections what mixture is wear vs. non-wear.

    • For gyratory design, on the local government system and per the Design Guidelines document, the top 3” is wear and below 3” from the surface is non-wear.

    • For Marshall design, the top lift is the wear and below that is non-wear.

Rules of thumb
Rules of Thumb

  • For all construction:

    • Minimize the number of PG grades on any one project.

  • For new construction using PG 58-34

    • The top 3” of mixture should be the same higher type PG grade (PG 58-34).

    • Below the top 3” the PG grade should be the same and can be a lesser grade (PG 58-28).

Saw and seal
Saw and Seal

  • Used in lieu of PG xx-34 to control cracking.

    • Joint Spacing typically at 40 ft.

    • Saw cuts perpendicular to longitudinal joint

      • Curb and gutter skew to meet joints

      • Cost: $1.25 to $1.50 per liner foot

  • MnDOT has seen poor performance with S & S

    • MnDOT does not use anymore per Tech Memo 02-17-MRR-04.

      • Local govt. sector has seen success with S & S.

  • Gradation sizes


    Designation Size

    A (SP 9.5) -1/2”

    B (SP 12.5) -3/4”

    C (SP 19.0) -1”


    Designation Size

    4 -1/2”

    3 -3/4”

    2 -1”

    5 -3/8”

    Gradation Sizes

    Marshall mixture designation
    Marshall Mixture Designation

    Example: LVWE35030B

    TrafficLiftMaxAggregateNumber AirVoidsBinderGrade


    LV WE/NW 2 (1”) 50 30 (3.0%) A = PG 52-34

    MV WE/NW 3 (3/4”) 35 (3.5%) B = PG 58-28

    4 (1/2”) C = PG 58-34

    5 (3/8”) D = PG 58-40

    E = PG 64-28

    F = PG 64-34

    G = PG 64-40

    H = PG 70-28

    I = PG 70-34

    L = PG 64-22

    Gyratory mixture designation
    Gyratory Mixture Designation

    Aggregate requirements
    Aggregate Requirements

    • Flat AND Elongated (gyratory mix design only) 10% max at 5:1 ratio.

    Mixture acceptance
    Mixture Acceptance

    • When total project tonnage requires less than 4 tests:

      • Use start-up requirements for acceptance when total production is less than 4 tests.

    Pavement smoothness
    Pavement Smoothness

    • IRI will replace Profile Index on all bituminous projects in 2006.

      • PI Table A (3-lift), B (2-lift), C (1-lift) will be replaced with IRI Equation A (3-lift), B (2-lift), C (1-lift).

      • Percent Improvement will also be available for single lift construction.

    State aid bituminous seminar

    • Most closely simulates ride inside a vehicle.

    • Most widely used index to report condition of roads throughout the world (since 1980).

    • Used by MnDOT Pavement Management to evaluate entire TH system (IRI used to determine PSR).

    • Used by all states to report ride condition of Federally funded highways.

    Iri specification
    IRI Specification

    • Allows for tighter tolerance in certification (+/-5%).

    • QA can be performed quickly.

    • IRI Considerations:

      • Decide if project will have ride spec.

      • Identify in Special Provisions the Equation to be used for evaluation.

        • Bump height will be changed to 0.5” under Equation C evaluation.

    State aid bituminous seminar

    For the 2006 Construction Season

    • Four IRI ride specifications

      • IRI Equation “A” – replaces Table A

      • IRI Equation “B” – replaces Table B

      • IRI Equation “C” – replaces Table C

      • IRI Percent Improvement – predominately for application on single lift overlays where the existing IRI is greater than 100 in/mile

    State aid bituminous seminar

    IRI for 2006

    • IRI does have corrective action

      • Equation A, > 65 in/mi $900

      • Equation B, > 75 in/mi $675

      • Equation C, > 85 in/mi $450

    • Bump criteria

      • Equation “A” and “B” still use 0.4 inch bump/dip height

      • Equation “C” will use a 0.5 inch bump/dip height

    State aid bituminous seminar

    2360 IRI Items

    • Unless otherwise authorized by the Engineer, all smoothness testing shall be performed in the presence of the Engineer.

    • The Engineer and the Contractor shall mutually agree upon scheduling of smoothness testing so that testing can be observed.

    Equation a criteria
    Equation A Criteria

    • New construction with a minimum of 3 lifts, 40 mm (1.5") minimum lift thickness.

    • Overlay with a minimum of 3 lifts, 40 mm (1.5") minimum lift thickness.

    • Construction with an 8-foot minimum shoulder separation between curb and gutter and driving lanes, minimum of 3 lifts (shoulder at least 8' wide).

    Equation b criteria
    Equation B Criteria

    • New construction with minimum 2 lifts, 40 mm (1.5") minimum lift thickness.

    • Construction with curb and gutter adjacent to at least one driving lane (2 or more lifts).

    • Two- lift overlays, 40mm (1.5") minimum lift thickness, on an un-milled surface

    • Winter carry-over wearing course.

    Equation c criteria
    Equation C Criteria

    • New construction with 1 lift

    • Single lift overlays on an un-milled surface

    • Construction adjacent to an existing pavement

    Sampling tonnage
    Sampling Tonnage

    • Samples are to be taken at random locations.

    • Determine planned tonnage for mixture to be produced and divide by 1000. Round to next higher hole number.

      • EX: 3,500 (tons planned) /1000 = 3.5 = 4 tests required

    • Testing rate is accelerated at mixture start-up:

      • 1 test per 500 tons for first 2,000 tons

    • If the first random number of the day falls at less than 50 tons sample at 50 tons.

    Sampling location
    Sampling Location

    • Behind the paver sampling is still considered the most representative sample location. However,….

      • Alternate sampling locations are allowed when approved by the Engineer.

        • Truck box sampling is identified as an alternate sampling location (procedure on web).

        • When an alternate sampling location is approved and used the daily verification sample must still be taken from behind the paver.

    Materials control schedule
    Materials Control Schedule

    • MCS outlines the minimum sampling and testing required for materials used in highway construction.

    • The MCS supplements the Bituminous Specification (as well as other construction specifications).

      • MCS provides more detailed information regarding material testing rates.


        • 2006 Schedule not available at this time

    Quality assurance verification sample companion
    Quality AssuranceVerification Sample/Companion

    • Contractor must test verification companion and include in QC program.

    • Purpose: Compare tolerances between Contractor and Mn/DOT test results.

      • Tolerances not met?

        • Retest sample, ok  use contractor’s results for acceptance.

        • Retest not ok  acceptance based on MnDot’s tests.

          • Substitute parameters out of tolerance.

          • Test previously collected and subsequent QA samples.

    • Verification sample(s) may be taken at any time.

    Mcs remarks
    MCS Remarks

    • Please contact the Mn/DOT District Independent Assurance Inspector when project starts to provide servicing of your project.

    • *Verification Testing

      • Verification Companion testing from Agency split sample is required to be performed and shall be used as a QC sample once per day.

    • An Agency representative will take 1 verification sample per mixture blend per day for Mn/DOT laboratory testing. A verification companion sample will be given to contractor for QC testing.

    Mcs note 2
    MCS Note #2

    • All QA test samples shall be from split samples.

      • If a member of the monitoring team observes the Contractor Test, note and sign under remarks.

      • The Project Engineer is responsible for:

        • 1.) Reviewing control charts for accuracy and completeness.

        • 2.) Checking sampling and testing procedures.

        • 3.) Discussing QC problems with the Contractor.

        • 4.) Obtaining Verification Samples.

        • 5.) When additional testing is necessary, collect QA samples which have been acquired and retained by the Contractor and/or additional verification samples.


    • At Pre-Con Meeting:

      • Agency and Industry should exchange organizational charts identifying each persons responsibilities.

        • In many instances the specification refers to “the Engineer” or “the Agency”. Determine who that person is especially if you are utilizing a Consultant.

    Uniformity benefits
    Uniformity Benefits

    • Agency/Industry Benefits

      • Reduction in Mixture Price

        • Efficiency in mixture production.

      • Efficiency in teaching of HMA concepts

        • Increase the level of expertise

    • Minimize Confusion

      • State-Aid Engineers

      • District Materials Mixture Review

      • District Materials Production Testing

      • Contractor

  • Better QC/QA

  • Tech memo 04 sa 01
    Tech Memo 04-SA-01

    • Bituminous Specification Implementation

      • Issued Feb. 20, 2004, by Julie Skallman,

        • Beginning 2005 Construction Season, SALT Division requiring use of the 2360 Combined Specification on all projects using State-Aid or Federal-Aid funds.

    How do we promote uniformity
    How Do We Promote Uniformity?

    • Implement State-Aid Tech Memo.

    • Attend applicable local education training.

    • Consult DSAE/Bituminous Office


    Tech memo requirements
    Tech Memo Requirements

    • Exclusive use of the 2360 Combined Specification.

      • Modifications only with approval of DSAE.

        • Consult Ron Bumann or Bituminous Office.

          • Modifications allowed (but generally not recommended)

            • Maximum Density to Ordinary Compaction

            • Deletion of Ride Specification

    Incentive disincentive

    • Density and Ride

    • Incentive Purpose:

      • To encourage the contractor to provide workmanship and a final product above and beyond the minimum contract requirements.

    • Anticipated Direct Benefits of Incentive:

      • Longer service life

      • Reduced maintenance costs

      • Allows the better Contractor to bid in the incentive and possibly end up low bidder.

    • Incentives must be paid in a timely manner.

    Incentive disincentive1

    • Historically, penalties haven’t gotten us what we want. Penalties don’t equate to quality. Penalties are difficult to collect.

    • I/D provision has set the bar higher. Statistically, 1/3 of results will be at 100% pay and 2/3 will be above or below 100% pay.

    • Don’t write provision with incentive excluded.

    • Remember, not all projects should have ride specification or maximum density requirement. Use Engineering judgment.

    Incentive costs
    Incentive Costs*

    • Density will typically add $0.15/ton of mix

    • Ride will typically add $0.45/ton of mix

      * Based on TH data from 1998 - 2003

    Local agency education
    Local Agency Education

    • Technician Certification Program

      • Bituminous Plant and Street Inspector

        • Refresher Classes

    • Specification Updates through:

      • Conferences/seminars/workshops

        • MAAPT Bituminous Conference

        • County Engineer’s Conference

        • City Engineer’s Conference

        • MAPA State-Aid Workshops

        • Pavement Conference

        • MAPA Spring Workshop

        • Brown bag seminars

        • Plant Monitor Training

    • State-Aid Liaison – Ron Bumann

    Uniformity committee
    Uniformity Committee

    • Contractor initiated group to discuss differences between Districts for those Contractors who work across District lines.

      • Agency/Industry group meets on a yearly basis to review and discuss uniformity and consistency of District Laboratory policy and requirements.

      • Memo developed by the group provides guidelines to promote uniformity. Memo is to be adhered to by all District Labs and Contractors.

    Mixture design options
    Mixture Design Options

    • Laboratory Mix Design (Option 1)

      • Paperwork and mixture submitted to District Laboratory (7-day turnaround).

    • Modified Mix Design (Option 2)

      • Paperwork submitted to District Laboratory for review (2-day turnaround).

    Modified mix design
    Modified Mix Design

    • Mixture verification based on District Lab’s review of paperwork.

      • Mixture submittal not required.

    • Can be used if the following conditions are met:

      • Aggregates in proposed design have been used, in part, in other mix designs.

      • Level II designer must have minimum 2 yrs. experience in mixture design.

      • No violation of 1512, as it relates to mixture design, in the last 12 month period.

    Modified mix design qc testing requirements
    Modified Mix Design QC Testing Requirements

    • Initial Production Test Verification

      • Marshall bulk gravity, Max. gravity, AC content; 1 test per 500 tons for first 2,000 tons mixture produced.

        • From these test results determine: air voids, VMA

      • Gradation, CAA, FAA; 1 test per 1,000 tons for first 2,000 tons of mixture produced.

    • TSR sample must be obtained in first 5,000 tons mix produced or by second day of production.

    Modified mix design qa testing requirements
    Modified Mix Design QA Testing Requirements

    • Initial Production Verification

      • Obtain Verification Sample within the first 4 samples at start of production to verify: Marshall bulk gravity, Max. gravity, AC content (air voids, VMA), Gradation, CAA, FAA.

    • Marshall stability checked by District Lab on first day of production (verification sample)

    • TSR sample is tested at the discretion of the Materials Engineer.

    Mixture production start up
    Mixture Production Start-Up

    • The Contractor shall begin mixture production with the materials (gradation, asphalt content, and aggregate proportions) closely conforming to the reviewed Mixture Design Report. Closely conforming shall be defined as aggregate proportions within 5 percent of the design proportions.

    Production tsr requirement
    Production TSR Requirement

    • TSR sample obtained within first 5,000 tons or by second day of production.

      • Samples tested at discretion of District Materials Engineer. When testing required, both Contractor and MnDOT must test.

      • Sampling rate of 1/20,000 ton after initial sample

    • Discuss with the District Laboratory the need to test the sample.


    • Specification 2360 requires all pavements be compacted with Maximum Density Method unless otherwise specified in the contract or as noted in Specification Section 2360.6C.

    • Section 2360.6C discusses Ordinary Compaction.

    Core testing
    Core Testing

    • Cores will be taken and tested by the Contractor, however, the Contractor shall schedule the approximate time of testing during normal project work hours so the Engineer may observe and record the SSD and immersed weight of the cores.

    Density companion cores
    Density Companion Cores

    • Need proper, careful handling and storage of cores when transporting.

    • When Contractor’s core and companion core do not meet allowable 0.030 tolerance, the Department’s bulk gravity is averaged with the Contractor’s other core for lot density.

    • Improper handling may lead to replacing Contractor’s bulk gravity with a “damaged” bulk gravity.

    • At a minimum, keep cores out of direct sunlight and store on flat side rather than on end.

    • Re-core damaged cores.

    Actual core holes should be at paint ed location
    Actual Core Holes Should be at Painted Location

    Sma update
    SMA Update

    • 1 Project in 2005

      • I-35 at Black bear Casino

    • Approximately 3,000 tons placed on northbound lanes.

    Typical hma plant mixing temperatures
    Typical HMA Plant Mixing Temperatures

    • PG 58-28

      • 260 to 310 F

    • PG 58-34

      • 260 to 310 F

    • PG 64-28

      • 265 to 320 F

    • PG 64-34

      • 265 to 320 F

    • PG 70-28

      • 275 to 325 F

    Mixing temps
    Mixing Temps

    • Supplier should provide Contractor with optimal mixing temperatures.

      • Supplier had provided SMA producer on I-35 with the mixing temperatures, but, ….

    • Generally speaking, mixing temperatures above 325F are rare.

      • But, this is determined between Supplier and Contractor.

      • However, if you are aware of Contractor mixing above 325F, contact Bituminous Office or Chem Lab immediately.

    High mixing temperatures
    High Mixing Temperatures

    • New Materials-Old Technology

    • Brookfield Viscosity- Unmodified

      • Measure polymer properties

      • Low shear rate

    • DSR- Polymer-Modified

      • Measure Binder properties

    • Supplier Recommendation

      • Proper technique

      • Field Experience

    Asphalt film thickness
    Asphalt Film Thickness

    • Why AFT?

      • VMA does not ensure adequate film thickness.

        • VMA is based on maximum aggregate size, not the overall gradation.

          • VMA = Vbe + Va

          • AFT = Vbe/SA; where SA represents gradation

            • As SA increases, the Vbe must also increase in order to maintain AFT.

      • F/A is a design consideration only and there is not necessarily a correlation between F/A and AFT.

    Bituminous web page
    Bituminous Web Page

    Web page contents
    Web Page Contents

    • Bituminous Specifications for Various Years

    • Bituminous Laboratory Procedures, Field Procedures and Lab Manual

    • Spread Sheets and Other Tools

    • Design Aids and Miscellaneous Documents

    • Miscellaneous Forms

    • People and Phone Numbers



    Thank You