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Session Objective To understand how to set high quality learning objectives and learning outcomes. Session Outcomes By the end of this session you will … Know the difference between a learning objective and a learning outcome
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Session ObjectiveTo understand how to set high quality learning objectives and learning outcomes Session Outcomes By the end of this session you will … • Know the difference between a learning objective and a learning outcome • Be able to share objectives and outcomes with pupils using common sentence stems • Understand the importance of planning and sharing clear outcomes with pupils • Develop a range of strategies for sharing learning outcomes • Improve schemes of work by annotating improvements to learning objectives and outcomes • Understand how photo story can be used as a tool for sharing learning objectives and learning outcomes
Why do we need this? • Our work on Photo Story revealed that many staff are unclear on how to set clear learning objectives and outcomes • Learning outcomes are not always evident in schemes of work. This increases the need for daily lesson plans. • Lesson observation evidence points to a lack of clarity in terms of sharing learning outcomes as a barrier to lessons being judged as “good”
So what’s the difference? • Learning objectives set the overall aim of a lesson or sequence of lessons and how it fits into the bigger picture of the subject • Learning outcomes inform pupils what they need to do by the end of the lesson or sequence of lessons to prove that they have achieved the learning objective. They tell pupils what you expect from them as a high quality outcome of each lesson or part of lesson
Sharing Learning Objectives and Outcomes Watch the video sequence 1a, (Pedagogy and Practice Teaching and learning in secondary schools Ref: DFES 0445-2004 GDVD) which shows the introduction to a lesson. Note how the teacher shares the purpose (learning objectives - WALT) with pupils. Can you suggest how the objective could be improved? Note how she indicates what outcomes (WILF) she expects the pupils to achieve?. What other assessment for learning tool does she employ to ensure a quality outcome? Reflect on your own introductions to lessons: how do you communicate your objectives and expectations (outcomes) to learners?
Writing Learning Objectives Activity Analyse your schemes of work. Do they identify clear learning objectives? Are they precise enough or do they need refining? Annotate schemes with improvements if necessary. Learning objectives should use the following stems: “WALT - We are learning to …..”Followed by: E.g. We are learning to understand why the Berlin wall was built Or use “By the end of this lesson (or sequence of lessons) you will know / understand / be able to / be aware of etc. …….” know that … understand how / why … be able to … be aware of …. explore and refine strategies for ….
Defining learning outcomes Learning outcomes should: • unpack the learning objective • define what pupils will produce at the end of a lesson or sequence of lessons that will demonstrate the learning that has taken place • tell pupils what you expect from them as a high-quality outcome of a lesson, part of lesson or sequence of lessons • be clearly defined • be planned for • be in “pupil speak”
Use the following stems to share learning outcomes • WILF What I’m looking for …. • What I expect from everyone is ….. • For top marks …. • To be successful you should …. • By the end of this lesson you will ……. • To achieve the objectives you must ….
Learning outcome examples For top marksyou will need to solve the equations for all values of x and show clearly in your working how you reached your answers. By the end of this lessonwe will be able to confidently discuss reasons why the Berlin wall was built from the perspective of both East and West. You will produce a piece of written work which will include ……… To be successfulyour group will have listed the pros and cons for each of the suggestions on the paper provided and be prepared to give feedback in 20 minutes.
Learning outcome examples What I am looking foris for you to set your conclusion out in three paragraphs: the first will describe the pattern you found in your results; the second will explain this, using the scientific ideas we talked about; the third will state whether the hypotheses you investigated were supported or not from the evidence. What I expect from everyoneis a description of the events leading up to the Norman invasion in 1066. It should have three main parts: an introductory paragraph to set the scene, a description of events in chronological order and a closing statement. A good one will contain ….
Getting the pitch right • Learning outcomes must be pitched at the appropriate level for the ability of learners • More able learners should be challenged with more open ended objectives • Use “must”, “should”, “could” to differentiate outcomes e.g.: "By the end of the lesson all of you will be able to……, most of you will be able to….. and a few of you may even be able to….." This sets a baseline for everyone to aim for, without restricting those students with special aptitude. Encourage students to set the appropriate target for themselves. • The following slide may help ensure that your outcomes are pitched at an appropriate level
High order thinking and challenge Low order thinking and challenge
Modelling It may be appropriate to demonstrate the skill the students are working towards. It may be appropriate to show them examples (e.g.: a dovetail joint, a web cam image of a good piece of written work etc.) If these examples have been made by other students (e.g. last year's Year 7 class), it reassures the students in the class that the outcome is within their reach.
Sell the benefits Help students get a sense of excitement about what they are learning. Doing so can create a sense of achievement and instil a sense of personal pride. Enthuse students by telling them: How they will feel? How this is going to benefit them immediately and in the long term? What opportunity there will be for them to demonstrate or use what they have learned? Remember that boys in particular will respond to a sense of challenge. Set them a target or a time limit. Better still, encourage them to set themselves targets.
Activity • Work in pairs or groups of three • Analyse a scheme of work to identify clear learning outcomes for each of the learning objectives • Update your scheme of work and make it available to the rest of your Department by saving it in your Departments resource area on the network • Produce a NoteBook (Smartboard software) or PowerPoint presentation to share learning objectives and outcomes with pupils. Save this in your Department folder and share it with the rest of your Department. • Demonstrate what you have produced or are working towards at your next Department meeting
Photo Story Activity • Photo Story is a piece of free software that allows you to produce a “movie” using still images. • Click the link on the home page to view the Photo Story CPD activity.
When observing lessons … • Look for clearly defined objectives and outcomes • Ask pupils if they understand what they are doing and why they are doing it • Ask pupils what they will know, be able to do etc. at the end of the lesson or sequence of lessons that they could not do at the start • Don’t be pedantic. If the outcomes of a lesson are clear but the terminology advised in this presentation is not used don’t down grade a lesson
References • Slides 3 to 10 adapted from DFES Pedagogy and Practice Teaching and learning in secondary schools unit 1 Structuring Learning DFES ref 0423-2004-G • Video referred to in slide 4 Pedagogy and Practice Teaching and learning in secondary schools DVD 1 sequence 1A DFES Ref 0445-2004 GDVD • Slide 11 adapted from Valencia Community College Learning Evidence Team Thesaurus of useful verbs helpful in writing learning outcomes GIF