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Return to Home Page GEOG 370 May 9, 2013
May 9th“Ecological Economics” thanks to Robert Costanza Read and respond in class to Costanza's “Four Visions of the Future”: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol4/iss1/art5/ B-C exercises due on May 14 Second Essay exam questions handed out May 16. Second exam responses due on May 21. Reading for class ES 151-229
The Tragedy of the Commons: Experiential Group Process Exercise
Discussion questions: • Did anyone in your group take too many fish? How did • that make you feel? Did anyone try to take as many as • possible? Why or why not? Does society reward those with • the “most’? • 2. Did anyone sacrifice the # of fish, for the good of the • community? Why or why not? Does society ever reward • that type of person?
In Game Two… how did your strategy change, if at all? Does it make a difference • to know what the rewards are? • 4. Is it possible to maximize the number of fish caught/person AND the number of fish • remaining in the pond at the same time? Why or why not? • Think of a local commons that you are familiar with [parking lots. Dorm social rooms, • bathrooms,, bookstall, etc.]. Do similar problems arise? Explain. How might those • problems be solved? • What are some natural resources that are common resources? • What are global commons? Are these being used wisely? Why or why not?
1. In order to effectively envision, it is necessary to focus on what one really wants, not what one will settle for. For example, the list below shows the kinds of things people really want, compared to the kinds of things they often settle for. Really wantSettle for Self-esteem Fancy car Serenity Drugs Health Medicine Human happiness GNP Permanent prosperity Unsustainable growth 2. A vision should be judged by the clarity of its goals, not the clarity of its implementation path. Holding to the vision and being flexible about the path is often the only way to find the path. 3. Responsible vision must acknowledge, but not get crushed by, the physical constraints of the real world. 4. It is critical for visions to be shared, because only shared visions can be responsible. 5. Vision has to be flexible and evolving. Thus, the process of envisioning is at least as important as the particular visions themselves.
Table 1. Some characteristics of the basic worldviews. Technological optimist Technological skeptic technical progress can deal with technical progress is limited and any future challenge ecological carrying capacity must be preserved competition cooperation linear systems with no discontinuities complex, nonlinear systems with or irreversibilities discontinuities and irreversibilities humans dominant over nature humans in partnership with nature everybody for themselves partnership with others market as guiding principle market as servant of larger goals
Fig. 1. Four visions of the future based on the two basic worldviews and two alternative real states of the world.