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Reproductive Cycle. Ch. 28-3. Female Reproductive Cycle. Ovarian Cycle – events in the ovaries that occur during and after the maturation of an oocyte

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Presentation Transcript
female reproductive cycle
Female Reproductive Cycle
  • Ovarian Cycle – events in the ovaries that occur during and after the maturation of an oocyte
  • Menstrual Cycle – changes in the endometrium (lining) of the uterus to prepare for the arrival of a fertilized ovum that will develop until birth
  • Female reproductive cycle includes both of these
hormones of cycles
Hormones of Cycles
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    • Secreted by hypothalamus
    • Stimulates release of FSH and LH
      • Stimulate release of egg from ovaries
  • Estrogens
    • Secreted by ovaries
    • Promote development of sex characteristics
  • Progesterone
    • Secreted by ovaries
    • Prepare and maintain endometrium for implantation
    • Prepare mammary glands for milk secretion
hormones of cycles1
Hormones of Cycles
  • Relaxin
    • Relaxes the uterus by inhibiting contractions
    • Increases flexibility of pubic symphysis
    • Helps dilate cervix
  • Inhibin
    • Secreted after ovulation
    • Inhibits secretion of FSH and LH
hormonal changes
Hormonal Changes

Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

summary
Summary
  • Cycle is counted from 1st day of last period
  • Menstruation lasts 4-5 days
  • Proliferative phase (13 days)
    • Endometrium fills will tissue and blood
    • Ovulation occurs around day 14
  • Secretory phase (10 days)
    • If egg is fertilized, tissue stays to care for fetus
    • If egg is not, menstrual phase begins again
birth control
Birth Control
  • Oral contraceptives (the pill) – inhibits FSH and LH from being released, ovulation doesn’t occur, no egg for fertilization – close to 100% effective
  • “morning-after-pill” – causes shedding of lining (induces period) to prevent implantation
  • IUD – prevent implantation in uterus by changing lining
  • Spermicides – kill sperm, more effective with use of condom or diaphragm
birth control1
Birth Control
  • Barrier methods – prevent sperm from getting into uterus (condoms, diaphragm); also helps protect against STD’s
  • Periodic Abstinence – couple learns “cycle” and abstains during that time
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