A Close Reading of the Writing StandardsNorth Carolina Department of Public Instruction English Language Arts Department
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Common Core and Writing Participants will understand the expectations of the Writing Standards.
Agreements Ask questions. Engage fully. Integrate new information. Open your mind to diverse views. Utilize what you learn.
Participants as Writers • Participant’s Notes • Do a Quick Write about “your first memory of writing.”
Nobody but a reader ever became a writer. - Richard Peck
Writing to Read • In the Writing to Read report, Graham and Hebert examine whether various approaches to writing instruction impact students’ reading skills and comprehension. • The report: • describes a range of instructional practices that have demonstrated a positive effect on reading outcomes. • provides guidance on how teachers can use writing instruction to strengthen students’ reading performance. • Graham, S., & Hebert, M.A. (2010).
Recommendation #1 Have students write about text they read. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Research to build and present knowledge Writing Standards 7, 8 and 9
Having students respond to a text… improves reading comprehension. • Writing personal reactions • Analyzing the Text Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Having students write summaries of a text… • has a positive impact on reading comprehension. • Writing summaries: • using only one sentence • using a set of rules or steps • using an outline • by locating and using the main idea in each paragraph • using graphic organizers • Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading • Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Having students write notes about a text… enhances comprehension. “Taking notes about text proved to be better than just reading, reading and rereading, reading and studying, reading and underlining important information, and receiving explicit instruction in reading practice.” Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Having students answer questions about a text in writing or create and answer written questions about a text… • shows greater benefit than answering questions about a text verbally. • Answering questions about a text in writing; • Writing questions about text read; • Learning how to locate main idea in a text, generating and answering their own questions about text. • Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Recommendation #2 Teach students the writing skills and processes that go into creating text.Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Production and Distribution of Writing Writing Standards 4, 5, and 6
Teaching students the process of writing, text structures for writing, paragraph or sentence construction skills… improves reading comprehension. Two effective strategies were: • the process approach to writing • explicit instruction/mini-lessons that focused on spelling, sentence combining, and multi-paragraph composition were beneficial. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Teaching students sentence construction… improves fluency. • Activities in the study focused on the formation of complex sentences from smaller units of writing. • This type of writing instruction improved reading fluency for students in grades 1-7. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Teaching students spelling… improves word reading skills. • Activities in the study focused on the spelling patterns of letters and sounds in words. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Recommendation #3 Increase how much students write. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Range of Writing Writing Standard 10
Increasing how much students write… improves reading comprehension. • Effective instructional practices in this category included both independent and collaborative writing opportunities. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Supporting Young Writers All of the skills that are essential for college and career readiness in high school have their beginnings in the primary grades.
Text Types In the K-2 classroom, create a classroom environment where students: • know they are authors • express their opinions • share what they know about a topic • recount an event (Writing Standards 1-3) drawing dictating writing
Process Writing In the K-2 classroom, adults guide and support young authors as they learn to strengthen their writing by: • responding to questions and suggestions from peers • add details • focus on a topic (Writing Standard 5)
Grammar in Context In the K-2 classroom, students learn: • grammar and usage in context (shared reading) • to try it out (demonstrate command) in their own writing through models (shared writing) (Language Standards 1-2 and Language Standard 3 in grade 2.)
Using Digital Tools In the K-2 classroom, with guidance and support from adults, students use digital tools to: • produce writing • publish writing • collaborate with peers (Writing Standard 6)
Shared Research Projects In the K-2 classroom, students participate in shared research and writing projects. These shared research projects include author studies, “how to” books, studying a topic, and recording science observations. (Writing Standards 7 and 8)
Review of the Writing Standards 1-3 • Argument • Informational/Explanatory • Narrative Three Text Types
What does Appendix A tell us about the text types? In the descriptions look for: • Purpose • Definition • How http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_A.pdf p. 23-25
The Power of Metaphors Metaphors are essential because they help us understand and explain big ideas.
Create a Metaphor Choose a text type and create a metaphor that gets to the heart of that type of writing… • Narratives are tapestries, each thread is an experience in our lives.
Combining the Text Types • Skilled writers many times use a blend of these three text types to accomplish their purpose… (from Appendix A)
The Emphasis on Argument • While all three text types are important, the Standards put particular emphasis on students’ ability to write sound argument on substantive topics and issues, as this ability is critical to college and career readiness. p.24 Appendix A • It’s important to teach all types
Persuasion or Argument? According to Appendix A of the CCSS: persuasive writing might “appeal to the audience’s self-interest, sense of identity, or emotions,” whereas a logical argument convinces the audience because of the perceived merit and reasonableness of the claims and proofs offered rather than either the emotions the writing evokes in the audience or the character or credentials of the writer” (p. 24).
From: 5 Things Every Teacher Should be Doing to Meet the Common Core State Standards, Eye on Education http://www.eyeoneducation.com/bookstore/client/client_pages/pdfs/5ThingsCCSS_Davis.pdf
Narration as Knowledge • “My experience is what I know”. • Writing from the inside out William Strong, Write for Insight
Narrative Perks • Fosters understanding – “Our lives intersect through shared stories” – I can relate to that… • Inspires – generates ideas for writing and thinking. Create thinking logs for future research. • Connects – Discover meaning in their own experiences and connect to curriculum content.
From Narrative to Informational Participants gather in groups of 4. In your group, talk about the first time you felt like a writer. Write it as a paragraph on the blank side of your card. Now, line up according to the grade-specific time you felt like a writer. Tell your story in your grade-specific time line group. Go back to your original group and answer the questions on the back of the card.
Questions To move from narrative to informational: • What did the experience teach you? • How did this experience help shape who you are as a writer today? • How does this experience relate to other stories in your learning history?
We are the stories we tell. • Connect new and confusing experiences to old stories – actively seeking to make sense – to figure out and make a new story. • Narrative can help students negotiate the thinking challenges posed by informative, practical writing and argument.
It’s about balance! • And it is about building skills • And it is about scaffolding understanding • And it is about integration of text types
Examining the Progression of the Writing Standards • Find the document titled: “Common Core State Standards for Writing” • Look at the first writing standard • Using a pen/pencil/highlighter move from grade to grade underlining what is different from the previous grade
What did you observe? • K-2 • 3-5 • 6-8 • 9-12 • Consider: • At what grade do students move from • opinion pieces to argument? • What is the biggest difference when • comparing 8th to 9-10th? • When are students expected to provide • a conclusion?
Review of the Writing Standards 4 - 10 • Developing and organizing according to task, purpose, and audience • Revising, editing, rewriting to strengthen writing • Using technology to produce, publish, and collaborate
Completing short and long research projects • Gathering, assessing, and integrating information from multiple sources • Drawing evidence from texts to support analysis • Writing routinely for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences
Writing Standards Haiku • Work with a partner • Choose one Writing Anchor Standard from 4-10 • Create a haiku that expresses the gist of that standard Haiku: 5-7-5 syllables
Example of Haiku Develop writing Plan, revise, edit, rewrite Try a new approach. Anchor Standard 5
Anchor Standard 4 • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Supporting this standard: • Read Like a Writer • Using Mentor Texts
Read Like a Writer • What does it mean? • Read to identify the choices the author made so you can better understand how these choices might arise in your own writing. • Reading to learn about writing