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11. Family Stress and Crisis: Violence among Intimates. The Nature of Stress and Crisis. Crisis: A critical change of events that disrupts the functioning of a person’s life Family Stress: Tensions that test a family’s emotional resources Acute Stress: Short-term stress

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family stress and crisis violence among intimates

11

Family Stress and Crisis: Violence among Intimates

the nature of stress and crisis
The Nature of Stress and Crisis
  • Crisis: A critical change of events that disrupts the functioning of a person’s life
  • Family Stress: Tensions that test a family’s emotional resources
  • Acute Stress: Short-term stress
  • Chronic Stress: Long-term stress
the nature of stress and crisis1
The Nature of Stress and Crisis

Responses to Stress

  • General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): The predictable pattern one’s body follows when coping with stress, which includes the alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion

The Social Readjustment Rating Scale: A scale of major life events over the past year, each of which is assigned a point value.

the nature of stress and crisis2
The Nature of Stress and Crisis

Patterns of Family Crises

  • 3 distinct phases:
  • The eventthat causes the crisis
  • The period of disorganization that follows
  • The reorganization that takes place afterwards
the nature of stress and crisis3
The Nature of Stress and Crisis

Coping or Not: The ABC-X Models

  • ABC-X Model: A model designed to help us understand the variation in the ways that families cope with stress and crisis
  • Double ABC-X Model: A model designed to help us understand the effects of the accumulation of stresses and crises and how families adapt to them
violence among intimates
Violence among Intimates

Violence is a social problem because:

  • It affects large numbers of people
  • Violence is not completely random
intimate partner violence
Intimate Partner Violence

Defined as violence between those who are physically and sexually intimate, such as spouses or partners

  • Can encompass physical, economic, sexual, or psychological abuse
intimate partner violence1
Intimate Partner Violence

How We Define and Measure Intimate Partner Violence

  • Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS): A scale based on how people deal with disagreements in relationships
    • Are Men or Women More Likely to Be Victims? Bias and the CTS

Frequency of Intimate Partner Violence

  • Femicide: The killing of women
slide13
Table 11.2 Percentage of Person Raped and Physically Assaulted by an Intimate Partner in Lifetime, by Type of Assault and Sex of Victim
intimate partner violence2
Intimate Partner Violence

Types of Intimate Partner Violence

  • Common Couple Violence
  • Intimate Terrorism
  • Violent Resistance
  • Mutual Violent Control

Stalking and Cyberstalking

Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence

intimate partner violence3
Intimate Partner Violence

Coping with Violence: Leaving and Staying

  • Learned Helplessness: The psychological condition of having low self-esteem, feeling helpless, and having no control that is caused by repeated abuse
  • Battered Women’s Syndrome: A recognized psychological condition, often a subcategory of post-traumatic stress syndrome, used to describe someone who has been the victim of consistent and/or severe domestic violence
intimate partner violence4
Intimate Partner Violence

Violence in Gay and Lesbian Relationships

Dating Violence

Rape and Sexual Assault

  • Rape on College Campuses
      • “Date Rape” Drugs: Drugs that are used to immobilize a person to facilitate an assault
child abuse and neglect
Child Abuse and Neglect
  • Child Abuse: An attack on a child that results in an injury and violates our social norms

Types of Child Abuse

Corporal Punishment

Who Would Abuse Children?

child abuse and neglect1
Child Abuse and Neglect

Consequences of Child Abuse

Trafficking

  • The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction , of fraud or deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation
child abuse and neglect2
Child Abuse and Neglect

Trafficking (continued)

  • Sex Trafficking: An industry in which children are coerced, kidnapped, sold, or deceived into sexual encounters
elder abuse
Elder Abuse
  • Defined as the abuse of an elderly person that can include physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, financial or material exploitation, and neglect
explanations for violence among intimates
Explanations for Violence among Intimates

Micro-Level Explanations

  • The Intergenerational Transmission of Violence: A cycle of violence that is passed down to dependents
  • Stress Explanation
explanations for violence among intimates1
Explanations for Violence among Intimates

Macro-Level Explanations

  • Patriarchy
  • Cultural Norms Support Violence
  • Norms of Family Privacy

A Synthesis: Power and Control

figure 11 7 power and control wheel in lesbian gay transgender and bisexual lgbt relationships
Figure 11.7 Power and Control Wheel in Lesbian, Gay, Transgender, and Bisexual (LGBT) Relationships
the public s response
The Public’s Response

Violence and the Law

Domestic Violence Shelters

  • Defined as a temporary safe house for a woman (with or without children) who is escaping an abusive relationship

Treatment Programs for Abusers