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  1. Usage in writing Topics: Sentence Structure

  2. Complete Simple Sentence • Independent clause • A group of related words that has a subject and a predicate • Presents a complete thought • Can stand alone as a sentence. • Example: Arthur shifted uneasily.

  3. Compound Sentence • Made up of two or more simple sentences (independent clauses) joined by a coordinating conjunction and a comma • Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet • Examples: • Arthur shifted uneasily, and the teacher continued to stare. • Arthur shifted uneasily, but the teacher didn’t notice. • Arthur shifted uneasily, so the teacher would not see him. • Arthur shifted uneasily, yet the teacher did not notice.

  4. Complex Sentence • Made up of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses • Examples: • Arthur shifted uneasily when the teacher caught him talking. • Arthur shifted uneasily because the teacher caught him talking.

  5. Dependent Clause • Watch sentence fragment • A group of related words that has a subject and a predicate • Does not present a complete thought • Cannot stand alone as a sentence • Must attach itself to an independent clause to make sense • Begins with either a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun • Example: When (sc) Arthur shifted uneasily… • Example: …who (rp) shifted uneasily.

  6. Subordinating conjunctions after although as as if as long as as though because before if in order that since so provided that so that that though till unless until when where whereas while

  7. Relative Pronouns who whose whom which what that whoever whomever whichever whatever

  8. Prepositional phrases Shows how a word or words relate to each other: Which one? What kind? How many? Where? Examples: Arthur shifted uneasily in class. Arthur shifted uneasily during the horror movie. Some prepositions: at, against, beneath, of, in, near, with, between, during

  9. Developing Sentence Style:Vary Sentence Beginnings • Instead of beginning with the subject and verb, begin with a phrase or dependent clause: • S-V: There were snowflakes in my eyes when I awoke. Vary: When I awoke, there were snowflakes in my eyes. • S-V: The oxen in the stables bellowed and rolled their eyes in terror. Vary: From the stables, the oxen bellowed and rolled their eyes in terror.

  10. Developing Sentence Style:Moving Adjectives • Usually you write adjectives before the nouns they modify. You can emphasize adjectives by placing them after the noun. • The shouting and screaming children charged back into their homeroom. • Revise: The children, shouting and screaming, charged back into their homeroom.

  11. Developing Sentence Style:Moving Adverbs • You can emphasize adverbs by putting them at the beginning of the sentence • Uneasily, Arthur shifted in his seat.

  12. Developing Sentence Style: Repeating a Word • Repeat a word to emphasize an idea or feeling. • That government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth… (Gettysburg Address)