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Conceptions of Privacy. August 30, 2007. Avoiding Plagiarism. Research and Communication Skills. CMU Policy on Cheating and Plagiarism. CMU Policy*:

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Conceptions of Privacy

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conceptions of privacy

Conceptions of Privacy

August 30, 2007

cmu policy on cheating and plagiarism

Research and Communication Skills

CMU Policy on Cheating and Plagiarism

CMU Policy*:

Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to, failure to indicate the source with quotation marks or footnotes where appropriate if any of the following are reproduced in the work submitted by a student:

  • A phrase, written or musical.
  • A graphic element.
  • A proof.
  • Specific language.
  • An idea derived from the work, published or unpublished, of another person.


this is serious

Research and Communication Skills

This is serious
  • Consequences of plagiarism in this class range from zero credit for entire assignment to failing the course to recommendation of university disciplinary action
  • Publishers and professional societies have plagiarism policies too
  • The Internet makes it easy to plagiarize
    • Students are frequently cutting and pasting off the Internet without proper quotation and/or citations
    • Students are buying papers off the Internet
  • The Internet also makes it easy to catch plagiarism
avoiding plagiarism1

Research and Communication Skills

Avoiding plagiarism
  • If you use someone’s specific words, put them in quotes and cite the source
  • If you use someone’s ideas expressed in your own words, cite the source
  • If you paraphrase, summarize in your own words, but still cite source
    • Don’t use same sentence structure with a few word substitutions
    • If you use some of the source’s words, put them in quotes
  • When in doubt, put it in quotes and cite the source!
good resources on avoiding plagiarism

Research and Communication Skills

Good resources on avoiding plagiarism
    • Includes nice examples of good and bad paraphrasing
    • Includes good suggestions for how to avoid accidental plagiarism in your writing
creating a bibliography and citing sources1

Research and Communication Skills

Creating a bibliography and citing sources
  • Do you know how to create a properly formatted bibliography?
  • Why is a list of URLs not a proper bibliography?
citing sources

Research and Communication Skills

Citing sources
  • Whenever you take words, images, or ideas from another source you need to cite that source
    • Direct quotes and paraphrases
    • Images, photographs, tables, graphs
    • Ideas, measurements, computations
  • Also use citations as evidence to back up assertions
  • If you use somebody else’s words, you must quote them
    • Short excerpts appear in quotes
    • Long excerpts (3 or more lines) are introduced and then appear as indented text, often in a smaller font, single spaced
    • If you leave out words in the middle use …
    • If you leave out words at the end use ….
    • If you substitute or add words, put them in square brackets []
    • If you add italics say [emphasis added]
  • Failure to cite sources = plagiarism

Research and Communication Skills

  • Usually paraphrasing ideas is preferable to quoting unless
    • Exact wording is important
    • You are quoting famous words
    • You are critiquing or comparing specific words rather than ideas
    • The original words say what you want to say very well and succinctly
  • Usually paraphrasing lets you convey an idea more succinctly because you can focus on the part of the idea most relevant to your paper
  • If you end up using some of the original words in your paraphrase, use quotes around those words
forms of citation

Research and Communication Skills

Forms of citation
  • Full bibliographic citation inline
    • Typically used on a slide
  • Footnote or endnote
    • Used in legal writing, many books, some conferences and journals
  • Inline short citation with bibliography, references cited section, or reference list
    • Used by most technical conferences and journals, some books, most dissertations
citations in text

Research and Communication Skills

Citations in text
  • Format depends on style you are using
    • Usually a number or author and date, sometimes a page number reference too
  • Citation usually goes at the end of the sentence
    • Privacy is not “absolute,” (Westin 1967).
    • Privacy is not “absolute,” [3].
  • If Author is mentioned, in sentence, name does not appear in citation
    • Westin (1967, p. 7) claims that individuals must balance a desire for privacy with a desire to participate in society.
  • Multiple citations can appear together
    • [3, 4, 5]
    • (Westin 1967; Cranor 2002)

Research and Communication Skills

  • Used heavily in legal writing
  • Usually used sparingly in technical writing
  • Each footnote appears only once
  • If you reference the same source multiple times you must repeat the reference information, however you can abbreviate it on second and subsequent references and use ibid to indicate same as previous reference
creating a bibliography

Research and Communication Skills

Creating a bibliography
  • Similar rules apply to other forms of citation (footnotes, etc.)
  • Pick an appropriate style and use it consistently throughout your paper
    • Most conferences and journals have style requirements
    • Popular styles: Chicago/Turabian, MLA, APA, APSA, ACM, IEEE
  • Complete bibliographic entry includes author, title, date, publisher, place of publication, pages, volume number, etc.
  • Bibliographic entries should be ordered - usually either alphabetically or in order referenced in the text
word processing tools

Research and Communication Skills

Word processing tools
  • Microsoft Word
    • Word has built in support for footnotes and endnotes
    • Use cross reference feature for numbered reference lists
    • Third party bibliographic add-ons may be useful
  • LaTeX
    • Built in support for footnotes and endnotes
    • Use Bibtex!
  • Individual or small group (up to 3 students)
  • Pick your own project or one that I suggest
  • All projects have final paper, presentation, and poster as deliverable
  • Some projects may have other deliverables such as software, user interface designs, etc.
past projects
Past projects
  • Several past projects have been turned into a thesis or published paper
    • The Real ID Act: Fixing Identity Documents with Duct Tape.I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society, Fall/Winter 2005 (Serge Egelman).
    • How Technology Drives Vehicular Privacy.I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society, 2(3), Fall 2006, 981-1015 (Aleecia McDonald).
    • Scrubbing Stubborn Data: An evaluation of counter-forensic privacy tools. IEEE Security & Privacy, September/October 2006 (Matthew Geiger).
    • Peripheral Privacy Notifications for Wireless Networks. In Proceedings of the 2005 Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society, 7 November 2005, Alexandria, VA (Braden Kowitz).
    • Privacy in India: Attitudes and Awareness. In Proceedings of the 2005 Workshop on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET2005), 30 May - 1 June 2005, Dubrovnik, Croatia (Ponnurangam Kumaraguru).
    • PANAMA: Privacy Assured Name-Addressable Messaging Architecture For Unlinkable Instant Message Conversations. INI Thesis 2005 (Ryan Mahon).
selecting a research topic

What are you interested in?

What would you like to learn more about?

What topics might be relevant to your thesis work?

What topics might be relevant to your future career?

Select a small number of candidate topics (Oct 2)


How much information seems to be available?

Is this topic over done?

What open questions are there?

Do you still find this topic interesting?

Do you have the skills necessary to pursue this topic?

Focus (October 11 - one paragraph description)

Select a topic

Define a focused research question

Read some more

Conduct a “literature review”

Adjust your topic as needed

Write a project proposal (October 25)

Research and Communication Skills

Selecting a research topic
discussion questions
Discussion questions
  • What does privacy mean to you?
    • How would you define privacy?
    • What does it meant to you for something to be private?
  • How has your privacy been invaded?
    • Describe an incident in which your privacy was invaded by a friend or family member
    • Describe an incident in which your privacy was invaded by a stranger
    • Describe an incident in which your privacy was invaded by an institution
    • What is the funniest invasion of privacy that ever happened to you or someone you know?
discussion questions1
Discussion questions
  • Should everything be private all the time?
  • Should everyone have an absolute right to control what information about them is private?
  • What are the costs of privacy?
    • Personal costs?
    • Societal costs?
nothing to hide
Nothing to hide?
  • What is the “nothing to hide” argument?
  • How is it used to argue for limited privacy rights?
  • What counter-arguments are there?

Solove, Daniel J., "'I've Got Nothing to Hide' and Other Misunderstandings of Privacy" . San Diego Law Review, Vol. 44, 2007 Available at SSRN:

“Privacy’s function…is not to protect the presumptively innocent from true but damaging information, but rather to protect the actually innocent from damaging conclusions drawn from misunderstood information.” -- Lawrence Lessig, Privacy and Attention Span 2001

britney spears we just need privacy
Britney Spears: “We just need privacy”

“You have to realize that we're people and that we need, we just need privacy and we need our respect, and those are things that you have to have as a human being.”

— Britney Spears15 June 2006NBC Dateline


Only a goldfish can live without privacy…

Is this true?

Can humans live without privacy?