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Review Questions Ch. 4. Review Answers. 1. Long, complex organic compounds formed when amino acids are combined with one another into polymers. Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and sometimes phosphorus and iron. 2. Leaves, petioles, and seeds.

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Review answers
Review Answers

  • 1. Long, complex organic compounds formed when amino acids are combined with one another into polymers. Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and sometimes phosphorus and iron.

  • 2. Leaves, petioles, and seeds.

  • 3. Simple forms of amino acids, not as complex as proteins.

Review answers1
Review Answers

  • 4- All the nitrogenous compounds found in a feed.

  • 5- All nitrogenous compounds found in a feed. Includes protein and nonprotein nitrogen. Found by the amount of nitrogen content and multiplying by 6.25. The feed is treated chemically, causing it to release ammonia. The ammonia is titrated to determine the percent of nitrogen it contains.

Review answers2
Review Answers

  • 6- Approximate amount of protein available for use by the animal.

  • 7- Ruminants utilize both protein and NPN through microbial action in the rumen. Nonruminant animals cannot use the amides NPN as a substitute for the essential amino acids.

  • 8- Organic acids containing one or more alph-amino groups.

Review answers3
Review Answers

  • 9- Essential amino acids are those which must be provided in the ration of nonruminant animals cannot synthesize them fast enough. Nonessential amino acids are needed by animals but are synthesized in the body from other amino acids.

  • 10- High quality: good balance of amino acids. Poor quality: deficient in amount or balance of amino acids.

Review answers4
Review Answers

  • 13- Important for muscles, cartilage, ligaments, nerves, brain, blood cells, internal organs, skin, hair, wool, feathers, hooves, horns and bones. Needed for maintenance, finishing, work, and wool production.

  • 14- Young animals, and during gestation and lactation.

Review answers5
Review Answers

  • 15- Depressed performance, higher production costs. Reserve from blood and liver, in cattle, are used up quickly. Reduced feed intake, poor muscular development, loss of weight, reduced fertility in females.

  • 17- Protein is usually high in energy, but is to expensive to feed exclusively as an energy feed.

  • 18- Improperly handling, low moisture, improper storage.

Review answers6
Review Answers

  • 21- Direct cut grass silages, sorghum silages, and high moisture corn.

  • 23- Determined by comparing the excreted protein in the feces and urine with the protein intake in the diet. In general, animal protein feeds have a higher biological value than plant proteins because they contain a better balance of amino acids.

Review answers7
Review Answers

  • 24- Feeds high in amino acids, generally over 20 percent crude protein.

  • 25- Animal origin and plant origin.

  • 26- Soybean meal. Most economical, high protein content.

  • 29- 37-38% protein and 17-18 % fat. Soybeans should be limited to not more than 20%. Soybean meal can be as high as 44%.

  • 31- Because the rumens have microbes that break the urea down and the nonruminants do not.

Review answers8
Review Answers

  • 34- Urea is not toxic, however, ammonia is released by microbe activity in the rumen and may be toxic if more ammonia is released than can be completely utilized by the microbes.

  • 37- Legumes contain more protein than grasses. Both are lower in protein than the oil meals. Forages harvested in the early stages of growth have a higher protein level than more mature forages.

Review answers9
Review Answers

  • 38- Grains vary widely in protein level and are not fed primarily for their protein content but as an energy source.


  • Describe minerals used in animal nutrition.

  • List sources of minerals for animal feeding.

  • Describe the functions of minerals in animal nutrition.

  • Describe the deficiency symptoms caused by a lack of minerals in the ration.

  • Discuss the requirements for minerals in the ration.

Minerals defined
Minerals Defined

  • Minerals are inorganic, low or no Carbon.

  • Two groups, major or macro and trace or micro.

  • Major include sodium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and sulphur.

  • Trace include chromium, cobalt, coper, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, silicon, and zinc.

Functions of minerals
Functions of Minerals

  • Mineral content of animal bodies range from 2 to 5%.

  • Provide material for growth of bones, teeth and soft tissues.

  • Regulate vital chemical processes, aid in muscular stimulation and activity, reproduction, digestion of feed, repair of body tissue, formation of new tissue.

Functions of minerals1
Functions of Minerals

  • Bones contain 25% minerals, Ca, 36%, P 17%, Mg .8%.

  • Minerals also affect nerve irritability.

  • Ca and P are essential for production of eggs.

Deficiency symptoms
Deficiency symptoms

  • Most ration deficiencies come from soil deficiencies.

  • Mineral deficiency may also result because of poor utilization by the animal.

  • Interrelationships between vitamins and other minerals, water.

Sources of minerals
Sources of Minerals

  • Commercial feeds such as protein supplements or mineral premixes usually contain both major and trace minerals.

  • Feed tags will show min and max amounts of major and micro minerals.

  • Sodium and chloride are guaranteed as the compound salt.

  • Calcium and phosphorus are usually supplied in commercial feeds by adding monocalcium phosphate, dicalcum phosphate.

Minerals in the ration
Minerals in the Ration

  • Minerals are usually added to the ration either by feeding them free choice or including them in the mixed ration.

  • Trace minerals can be deficient because of the soil in the area where the feed is grown.

  • Feeding or roughages or concentrate rations only can result in trace deficiencies.

Minerals in the ration1
Minerals in the Ration

  • NaCl, Ca and P are the minerals most likely to be need in the ration.

  • 70% of the mineral content of an animals body is Ca and P.

  • When livestock are on pasture or are not being fed a concentrate feed, then minerals must be supplied free choice.

  • Animals do not do a good job of balancing their mineral needs when given a free choice of several minerals.


  • Bones and teeth, 99%.

  • Milk and eggs.

  • Most important to lactating animals.

  • Important for muscle and nerve development.

  • Maintaining the acid-base balance of the body fluids.

Calcium deficiency symptoms
Calcium Deficiency symptoms

  • Abnormal and weak bone growth.

  • Young can develop rickets.

  • Without Ca, the joints of young animals become enlarged, bones weak, soft and deformed. Animals are stiff with arching backs.

  • Older animals develop “stiffs” or osteoporosis.

  • Ca deficiency in older pregnant animals manifest itself as paralysis of the hindquarters.

Calcium interrelationships
Calcium Interrelationships

  • Ca:P, 1:1 to 2:1, excess Ca will result in poor utilization of other minerals.

  • An excess of P decreases the absorption of Ca.

  • An excess of Mg decreases the absorption of Ca.Deficiency of vitamin D prevents the proper utilization of Ca.

  • Toxicity may occur, result in kidney stones.

Ca sources
Ca Sources

  • Grains, byproducts, straw, dried mature grasses and protein supplements from plant sources contain the least amount of Ca.

  • Legume forages and animal-origin protein supplements are the highest in Ca content.

  • Rations high in grain need a higher level of Ca supplementation, while legume forage rations need little or no added Ca.

  • Ca supplements are derived from two basic groups, Ca phosphates and CaCo3.

Ca sources1
Ca Sources

  • CaCo3 materials have about 35-40% Ca.

  • Ca phosphate materials contain 30% Ca and 14-20% P.

  • Ca phosphates are usually more expensive.

P major functions
P Major Functions

  • 80% of the P in the body is found in the bones and teeth.

  • Affects appetite, milk and egg production, reproduction and conversion of carotene to vitamin A and utilization of Vit. D.

P interrelationships
P Interrelationships

  • Excessive amounts of Ca and Mg in the diet reduces P absorption.

P sources
P Sources

  • Wheat bran, wheat middlings, cottonseed meal, linseed meal, meat scraps, tankage, fish meal and dried skim milk.

  • Legume and grass feeds grown in fertile soils are good sources of P.

  • Adequate Vit D levels improves the assimilation of P.

  • Cattle utilize 60% and swine 50% of the P from plant sources.

  • Fertilizer superphosphate should not be used.

Ca p ratio
Ca & P Ratio

  • The optimum ration varies with specie, type of feed and the Vit D level.

  • The ratio is not as important with adequate Vit D is present.

  • Nonruminant ratios 1:1 to 2:1

  • Ruminant ratios 1:1 to 7:1.

Nacl functions
NaCl Functions

  • Cattle, sheep and horses usually require more NaCl because of the high levels of forages in their diets.

  • Most grains and forages produced on non-irrigated soils are low in Na and Cl.

  • Important for maintaining osmotic pressure in the body cells.

  • Na the major mineral responsible for maintaining a neutral pH level in the body tissues.

  • Cl is essential for the formation of hydrochloric acid in digestive juices. Both minerals affect muscle and nerve activity.

Nacl deficiency
NaCl Deficiency

  • If temporarily deprived of NaCl they may develop an abnormal appetite for dirt, manure or urine.

  • No specific symptoms of NaCl deficiency, general unthrifty appearance, slow growth rough hair coat and poor performance.

  • Delayed reproduction, infertility and delayed sexual maturity.

Nacl ration requirements
NaCl Ration Requirements

  • NaCl may be mixed at a level of .25 to .50 % and or fed free choice.

  • During lactation period, include salt at about one percent of the ration for cattle, sheep and horses.

Nacl sources
NaCl Sources

  • Fed as block, loose or in the mineral mix.

  • Use salt as a carrier for trace minerals because of the improved palatability of mix.

  • NaCl fed to cattle on pasture often has organic iodine added to prevent foot rot and Mg oxide added to prevent grass tetany.

  • A 20 to 50% of the overall mineral mix in either plain or trace-mineralized form.

Nacl toxicity
NaCl Toxicity

  • Very seldom happens unless animal is restricted in their access to water.

  • Ruminants have been found to have levels as high as 15%with no toxicity resulting.

  • Nonruminants are subject when dietary levels are above 8%.

  • Symptoms include staggering, blindness, nervous disorder and hypertension.

K functions
K Functions

  • Affects osmotic pressure and acid-base balance, muscle activity and the digestion of carbohydrates.

  • Most rations contain enough K, therefore it is seldom added to a ration.

K sources
K Sources

  • Forages are high in K, 3-4%.

  • Grains and concentrates .3-.7%.

  • Animals need less than 1% K.

  • Cattle and sheep on high concentrate diets may require supplements.

K deficiency symptoms
K Deficiency Symptoms

  • Symptoms are not specific.

  • Include poor appetite, lower feed efficiency, slow growth, emaciation, stiffness, diarrhea and decreased milk production.

K excess in diet
K Excess in Diet

  • Poor assimilation of Ca and Mg.

  • High K intake will result in increased urine output.

  • Toxic levels will result in diarrhea, tremors and heart failure.

  • In soils high in K producing forage low in Mg and Ca. If this forage is the main diet, the low Mg causes grass tetany.

Mg functions
Mg Functions

  • Activates several enzyme systems, proper maintenance of nervous system, carbohydrate digestion and the utilization of P, Zn, and nitrates.

  • Necessary for normal skeletal development.

Mg deficiency symptoms
Mg Deficiency Symptoms

  • Low level result in decreased utilization of P, cause vasodilation.

  • Acute Mg deficiency results in grass tetany.

  • Levels lower than .001% in the blood.

  • The animals become nervous, stagger and fall down.

  • Cattle and sheep grazing on grass pasture, small grains, on highly fertilized fescue in late winter or early spring.

Mg interrelationships
Mg Interrelationships

  • Adding Mg causes Zn deficiency.

  • To much Mg in the ration interferes with metabolism of P and Ca.

Mg sources
Mg Sources

  • If diet is low in Mg, the bones will provide its reserve.

  • A little more than one ounce of Mg per head per day for cattle is enough.