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M87 interaction between a SMBH and gas rich atmosphere

Outbursts from Supermassive Black Holes Forman, Churazov, Jones, Bohringer, Begelman, Owen, Eilek, Nulsen, Vihlinin, Markevitch, Heinz, Kraft. M87 interaction between a SMBH and gas rich atmosphere Shocks, Buoyant plasma bubbles, Jet, Cavities, Filaments.

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M87 interaction between a SMBH and gas rich atmosphere

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  1. Outbursts from Supermassive Black Holes Forman, Churazov, Jones, Bohringer, Begelman, Owen, Eilek, Nulsen, Vihlinin, Markevitch, Heinz, Kraft M87 interaction between a SMBH and gas rich atmosphere Shocks, Buoyant plasma bubbles, Jet, Cavities, Filaments Unambiguous signature of an AGN triggered shock Outburst energy Outburst duration Energy channels for heating Cool X-ray filamentary structure Clear evidence for bubbles • Outbursts from galaxies to (M87 to) rich clusters • Outbursts range from 1055 < ∆E < 1062 ergs • See growth of SMBHs - ∆MSMBH ∝∆EOUTBURST /c2 • ∆MSMBH up to 3x108 solar masses per outburst

  2. SMBH and Parent Galaxy Mbulge-M M -  M M Magorrian et al. Gebhart et al. Ferrarese & Merritt Velocity Dispersion MBulge • Hot X-ray emitting atmospheres - “fossil record” of SMBM activity • Observe outburst frequency • Measure total power - mechanical vs. radiative (cavities) • Understand interaction of outburst with surroundings • Insight into high redshift, early universe • Growth/formation of galaxies • Growth of SMBH

  3. Millenium Run + Semi-analytic Galaxy Evolution Croton et al. 2006 • 1010 particles of 109 Msun • extract merger trees of dark matter halos from z=20 to z=0 • z=0 dark matter • z=0 light Croton et al. 2006 “The many lives of active galactic nuclei: cooling flows, black holes and the luminosities and colours of galaxies”

  4. Rapid Cooling Hot Halo Millenium Run + Semi-analytic Galaxy EvolutionCroton et al. 2006 For massive galaxies/halos, AGN feedback into hot coronae is long-lived phase Study this long-lived phase of outbursts and feedback into the hot coronae • Massive halos/galaxies • Form hot gas coronae at early times • Growth/merging continues with little star formation • Oldest systems become “red and dead” - but still growing via mergers • AGN heating is key • Downsizing - more massive galaxies end star formation at higher z; appears “anti-hierarchical”

  5. Setting the stage Family of increasing mass, temperature, and luminosity

  6. Setting the stage Family of increasing mass, temperature, and luminosity • Hot gas seen ONLY in X-ray band - thermal bremsstrahlung + lines • Gas provides a fossil record of mass ejections and energy outbursts • For clusters, 16% of mass is luminous baryons (mostly hot gas) • Measure heavy element enrichment - history of star formation • See reflections of energy outbursts in cavities over cosmic times

  7. Cooling Flows • Cowie & Binney (1977) Fabian & Nulsen (1977) “Cooling gas in the cores of clusters can accrete at significant rates onto slow-moving central galaxies” • Strong surface brightness peak  dense gas short cooling time • Hot gas radiates – gas must cool unless reheated, then compressed by ICM • Mass Deposition rates are large (100 -1000 M/yr) - more than 50% • But large amounts of cool gas were not detected • Emission lines from cooling gas NOT SEEN byXMM-NEWTON OGS (cool gas only 10% of prediction) (e.g., Peterson et al. 2001, 2002; Peterson & Fabian 2005) Allen/Fabian

  8. Central galaxy in Virgo cluster D=16 Mpc Virgo Cluster - X-ray/Optical 1’=4.65 kpc; 2o=0.5 Mpc • 3x109Msun supermassive black hole • Spectacular jet (e.g. Marshall et al.) • Nearby (16 Mpc; 1’=4.5 kpc, 1”=75 pc) • Classic cooling flow (24 Msun/yr) • Ideal system to study SMBH/gas interaction

  9. M87 Chandra-XMM-VLA View • Two X-ray “arms” • X-ray (thermal gas) and radio (relativistic plasma) “related” • Eastern arm - classical buoyant bubble with torus (Churazov et al 2001) • XMM-Newton shows cool arms of uplifted gas (Belsole et al 2001; Molendi 2002) • Southwestern arm - less direct relationship - radio envelops gas

  10. M87 Chandra-XMM-VLA View Churazov et al. 2001

  11. Gas Pressure (3.5-7.5 keV) Gas Density (1.2-2.5keV) Density and Pressure Maps Central Piston Shock Filamentary arms

  12. Schematic Shock ICM Bubble ICM

  13. Central Region of M87 - the driving force SMBH 3x109Msun • Nucleus, jet (knots) • Cavities surrounding the jet and the (unseen) counterjet • Bubble breaking from counter jet cavity • Perpendicular to jet axis; • Radius ~1kpc. • Formation time ~4 x106 years • Piston driving shock • X-ray rim is low entropy gas uplifted/displaced by relativistic plasma 6cm VLA 6 cm

  14. Projected Deprojected Shock Model I - the data Hard (3.5-7.5 keV) pressure soft (1.2-2.5 keV) density profiles

  15. Deprojected Gas Temperature Shock Rarefaction No hot shocked region interior to shock

  16. Consistent density and temperature jumps Rankine-Hugoniot Shock Jump Conditions T2/T1= 1.19 yield same Mach number: (MT=1.20 Μρ=1.24) M~1.2

  17. Outburst Energy Series of models with varying initial outburst energy 2, 5, 10, 20 x 1057 ergs Match to data E = 5 x 10 57 ergs Determined by jumps

  18. Derive outburst timescale Fast - large shock heated region Absence sets outburst duration 2-5 million yrs Slow - cool rim Shock-heated gas if τoutburstis too short Absence of hot region limits duration of outburst Must be longer than 2 million years

  19. Fast Fast/Slow Cartoon Hot, dim Radio Lobes Cool, bright Radio Lobes Slow

  20. Where does the energy go ?

  21. 1.2-2.5 keV 4.65 kpc M87 Soft Filamentary Web 90 cm (Owen et al.) • Sequence of buoyant bubbles • Many small bubbles (comparable to “bud”) • Effervecent heating - Begelman • PV ~ 1054 - 1055 ergs • τrise ~ 107 years • Arms - resolved • Eastern arm - classical buoyant bubble • Southwestern arm - overpressured and “fine” (~100pc, like bubble rims) - limit bulk gas velocities in core

  22. 4.65 kpc Organized and Disorganized Ruszkowski/Begelman Simulation for Perseus Both large scale bubbles AND Small scale chaotic bubbles

  23. M87 shocks and bubbles contribute to heating Both naturally arise from AGN outbursts Shock carries away ≤ 20-25% of energy 75% of outburst available to heat (eventually) Filaments Cool thermal rims of bubbles Southwestern arm - interaction with radio plasma Shock (and trailing rarefaction region) R, jump in T or ρ => Total deposited energy 5x1057 erg Lobes and shock radius => Age ≈ 14x106 yr Cool/bright rims => “slow” energy deposition 2-5x106 years Average energy release: few x 1043 erg/s ≈ Cooling losses Dunn et al. - 55 cluster sample, 20 have <3x109 yrs and 75% show bubbles Rafferty - 33 clusters; 50% withbubbles and sufficient energy to quench cooling Radio (blue) Chandra X-ray (red)

  24. Hot Gas in Early-type Galaxies - The Einstein Era • Pre-Einstein early type galaxies • Gas free - Stellar mass loss removed by SN driven winds. • Einstein Observatory images showed extended, hot coronae: • ~1 keV temperatures; masses to 1010 M , • Strong correlation of LX and LB but much scatter. • (e.g. Forman et al. 1979, 1985, Canizares et al. 1987) • High central gas densities => short cooling times • Accretion rates of 0.02-3 Msun/year (Nulsen et al. 1984, Thomas et al. 1986 )

  25. A Chandra survey of ~160 early type galaxies to measure outburst energy, age, frequency, plus diffuse/gas luminosity and nuclear emission (Jones et al.) Study hot gas - as a function M, velocity dispersion, …. Measure cavities - determine outburst energies (PV) and timescales Derive nuclear luminosities - correlate with gas density

  26. Chandra resolution required!

  27. In luminous ellipticals, most of the X-ray emission is from hot gas, In fainter systems, emission from LMXBs makes nearly all of the “diffuse” emission Galaxies with little hot ISM Gas dominates “diffuse” emission Correlation of Lx with L and Land  Mostly unresolved LMXB’s (hard specta)

  28. Exploding Elliptical -NGC4636 Jones et al 2001 • Strange X-ray structure in an otherwise normal Virgo elliptical galaxy • Double pin wheel-like structure in X-rays! X-ray arms ~8 kpc long. • Nuclear outburst 3 x 106 years ago with energy 6 x 1056 ergs • But small weak radio source

  29. Bubbles in a galaxy -- M84 Radio X-ray For Perseus, M87, M84, and for almost all others Gas surrounding bubble is cool Usually no shock heating in lobe H-shaped gas has kT~ 0.6 keV Ambient gas temperature increases from 0.6 to 0.8 keV with increasing radius Lobes ~ 4 kpc diameter outburst ~ 4 - 6 x 106 yrs ago Interaction with radio lobes of 3C272.1 Tail to south & northern lobe compression motion of M84 to the north .

  30. NGC507 5 106 years 107 years 5 107 years Galaxy rims are (generally) cool (like cluster) - no shocksBubbles (seen as cavities) gently uplift and impart energy to the gas NGC4636 2 106 years 3 106 years 3 106 years NGC5846 5 106 years

  31. How Common are AGN Outbursts in Galaxies?Determine fraction of Galaxies with Cavities Galaxies with diffuse gas Galaxies with cavities In luminous ellipticals (including some poor groups), 30% have cavities

  32. 1053 1055 1057 1059 PV (ergs) In galaxies, outbursts are recent (=> frequent) and impart significant energy to the ISM AGE of outbursts Ages and outburst energy for the 27 systems with cavities

  33. Nuclear activity - “AGN”Determine fraction with nuclear X-ray emission In “normal” early-type galaxies • X-ray emission detected from the nucleus for ~80% of early-type galaxies

  34. Conclusions Energy input from AGN is common in galaxies - reheats cooling gas, drives gas from their halos, and is important for galaxy evolution In luminous ellipticals, ~30% have cavities => recent outbursts - typical ages are 3x106 to 6x107 years - typical outburst energies (estimated from cavity sizes) are 1055 - 1058 ergs ~80% of all early type galaxies have weak X-ray “AGN”

  35. Hydra A (Nulsen et al 2005) Small cavities in core, medium cavities and a shock Shock front 200-300 kpc from AGN Shock energy 1061 ergs -- 1.4 X 108 years since outburst

  36. Hydra A (Nulsen et al 2005) Chandra radio contours on X-ray Small cavities in core , medium cavities and a shock Shock front 200-300 kpc from AGN Shock energy 1061 ergs -- 1.4 X 108 years since outburst

  37. Cluster Scale OutburstsMSO735.6+7421 6 X 1061 ergs driving shock (McNamara et al 2005) Cluster Lx = 1045 ergs/sec z=0.22 X-ray bright region - edge of radio cocoon lies at location of shock Radio lobes fill cavities (200 kpc diam) - displace and compress X-ray gas Work to inflate each cavity ~1061 ergs; age of shock 1 X 108 years Average power 1.7 X 1046 ergs/sec

  38. Outbursts from Clusters to Galaxies Growth of SMBH by accretion in “old” stellar population systems (Rafferty et al. 2006 - solar mass/yr) with star formation to maintain MBH-Mbulge relation Mechanical power balances cooling in 50% of clusters AGN outbursts deposit energy into gas through shocks and bubbles

  39. Hydra A NGC4636 M87 Impact of AGN outbursts on hot gas • M87 outburst ~14x106 years, ~2-5x106 years; inflates inner region • “classical shock - seen in density/temperature & rarefaction region • slow expansion of “piston” (no large shock heated region) • Outburst energy matches cooling • M87 arms from buoyant bubbles; soft filamentary web; complex (magnetic field) interactions of radio plasma bubbles with ISM • Galaxy outbursts and mini AGN are common (see talk by Christine Jones) • Outbursts from galaxies to clusters 1055-1062 ergs which grow SMBH

  40. Hydra A NGC4636 M87 Impact of AGN outbursts on hot gas • Reheat cooling gas through shocks/buoyant bubbles in all gas rich systems i.e. those with bulges and black holes • Critical to galaxy evolution/downsizing models • Massive galaxies are “red and dead” • Evolution continues but not (appreciable) star formation • Hot coronae “contain” AGN feedback energy over cosmological times • X-ray observations allow study of the outbursts and exactly how energy is injected into the hot surrounding atmosphere • Critical to understanding the new view of galaxy and black hole evolution

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